Individual variability following 12 weeks of supervised exercise: identification and characterization of compensation for exercise-induced weight loss

King, Neil A., Hopkins, Mark, Caudwell, Phillipa, Stubbs, R. J., & Blundell, John E. (2008) Individual variability following 12 weeks of supervised exercise: identification and characterization of compensation for exercise-induced weight loss. International Journal of Obesity, 32(1), pp. 177-184.

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Objective: To identify and characterize the individual variability in compensation for exercise-induced changes in energy expenditure (EE).

Design: Twelve-week exercise intervention.

Subjects: Thirty-five overweight and obese sedentary men and women (body mass index, 31.84.1 kg m-2; age, 39.611.0 years) were prescribed exercise five times per week for 12 weeks under supervised conditions.

Measurements: Body weight, body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR), total daily energy intake (EI) and subjective appetite sensations were measured at weeks 0 and 12.

Results: When all subjects' data were pooled, the mean reduction in body weight (3.73.6 kg) was significant (P<0.0001) and as predicted, which suggested no compensation for the increase in EE. However, further examination revealed a large individual variability in weight change (-14.7 to +1.7 kg). Subjects were identified as compensators (C) or noncompensators (NC) based on their actual weight loss (mean NC=6.33.2 kg and C=1.5 2.5 kg) relative to their predicted weight loss. C and NC were characterized by their different metabolic and behavioural compensatory responses. Moderate changes in RMR occurred in C (-69.2268.7 kcal day-1) and NC (14.2242.7 kcal day-1). EI and average daily subjective hunger increased by 268.2455.4 kcal day-1 and 6.911.4 mm day-1 in C, whereas EI decreased by 130485 kcal day-1 and there was no change in subjective appetite (0.49.6 mm day-1) in NC.

Conclusion: These results demonstrate that expressing the exercise-induced change in body weight as a group mean conceals the large inter-individual variability in body weight and compensatory responses. Individuals who experience a lower than predicted weight loss are compensating for the increase in EE.

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118 citations in Web of Science®
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ID Code: 15189
Item Type: Journal Article
Refereed: Yes
Keywords: exercise, compensation, energy balance
DOI: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0803712
ISSN: 1476-5497
Subjects: Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000) > HUMAN MOVEMENT AND SPORTS SCIENCE (110600) > Exercise Physiology (110602)
Divisions: Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
Copyright Owner: Copyright 2008 Nature Publishing Group
Copyright Statement: Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher.
Deposited On: 15 Oct 2008 00:00
Last Modified: 29 Feb 2012 13:37

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