Individual variability following 12 weeks of supervised exercise: identification and characterization of compensation for exercise-induced weight loss
King, Neil A., Hopkins, Mark, Caudwell, Phillipa, Stubbs, R. J., & Blundell, John E. (2008) Individual variability following 12 weeks of supervised exercise: identification and characterization of compensation for exercise-induced weight loss. International Journal of Obesity, 32(1), pp. 177-184.
Objective: To identify and characterize the individual variability in compensation for exercise-induced changes in energy expenditure (EE).
Design: Twelve-week exercise intervention.
Subjects: Thirty-five overweight and obese sedentary men and women (body mass index, 31.84.1 kg m-2; age, 39.611.0 years) were prescribed exercise five times per week for 12 weeks under supervised conditions.
Measurements: Body weight, body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR), total daily energy intake (EI) and subjective appetite sensations were measured at weeks 0 and 12.
Results: When all subjects' data were pooled, the mean reduction in body weight (3.73.6 kg) was significant (P<0.0001) and as predicted, which suggested no compensation for the increase in EE. However, further examination revealed a large individual variability in weight change (-14.7 to +1.7 kg). Subjects were identified as compensators (C) or noncompensators (NC) based on their actual weight loss (mean NC=6.33.2 kg and C=1.5 2.5 kg) relative to their predicted weight loss. C and NC were characterized by their different metabolic and behavioural compensatory responses. Moderate changes in RMR occurred in C (-69.2268.7 kcal day-1) and NC (14.2242.7 kcal day-1). EI and average daily subjective hunger increased by 268.2455.4 kcal day-1 and 6.911.4 mm day-1 in C, whereas EI decreased by 130485 kcal day-1 and there was no change in subjective appetite (0.49.6 mm day-1) in NC.
Conclusion: These results demonstrate that expressing the exercise-induced change in body weight as a group mean conceals the large inter-individual variability in body weight and compensatory responses. Individuals who experience a lower than predicted weight loss are compensating for the increase in EE.
Impact and interest:
Citation countsare sourced monthly fromand citation databases.
These databases contain citations from different subsets of available publications and different time periods and thus the citation count from each is usually different. Some works are not in either database and no count is displayed. Scopus includes citations from articles published in 1996 onwards, and Web of Science® generally from 1980 onwards.
Citations counts from theindexing service can be viewed at the linked Google Scholar™ search.
Full-text downloadsdisplays the total number of times this work’s files (e.g., a PDF) have been downloaded from QUT ePrints as well as the number of downloads in the previous 365 days. The count includes downloads for all files if a work has more than one.
|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Keywords:||exercise, compensation, energy balance|
|Subjects:||Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000) > HUMAN MOVEMENT AND SPORTS SCIENCE (110600) > Exercise Physiology (110602)|
|Divisions:||Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health|
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
|Copyright Owner:||Copyright 2008 Nature Publishing Group|
|Copyright Statement:||Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher.|
|Deposited On:||15 Oct 2008|
|Last Modified:||29 Feb 2012 23:37|
Repository Staff Only: item control page