Complex organisation and structure of the ghrelin antisense strand gene GHRLOS, a candidate non-coding RNA gene
Seim, Inge, Carter, Shea L., Herington, Adrian C., & Chopin, Lisa K. (2008) Complex organisation and structure of the ghrelin antisense strand gene GHRLOS, a candidate non-coding RNA gene. BMC Molecular Biology, 9(95).
The peptide hormone ghrelin has many important physiological and pathophysiological roles, including the stimulation of growth hormone (GH) release, appetite regulation, gut motility and proliferation of cancer cells. We previously identified a gene on the opposite strand of the ghrelin gene, ghrelinOS (GHRLOS), which spans the promoter and untranslated regions of the ghrelin gene (GHRL). Here we further characterise GHRLOS.
We have described GHRLOS mRNA isoforms that extend over 1.4 kb of the promoter region and 106 nucleotides of exon 4 of the ghrelin gene, GHRL. These GHRLOS transcripts initiate 4.8 kb downstream of the terminal exon 4 of GHRL and are present in the 3' untranslated exon of the adjacent gene TATDN2 (TatD DNase domain containing 2). Interestingly, we have also identified a putative non-coding TATDN2-GHRLOS chimaeric transcript, indicating that GHRLOS RNA biogenesis is extremely complex. Moreover, we have discovered that the 3' region of GHRLOS is also antisense, in a tail-to-tail fashion to a novel terminal exon of the neighbouring SEC13 gene, which is important in protein transport. Sequence analyses revealed that GHRLOS is riddled with stop codons, and that there is little nucleotide and amino-acid sequence conservation of the GHRLOS gene between vertebrates. The gene spans 44 kb on 3p25.3, is extensively spliced and harbours multiple variable exons. We have also investigated the expression of GHRLOS and found evidence of differential tissue expression. It is highly expressed in tissues which are emerging as major sites of non-coding RNA expression (the thymus, brain, and testis), as well as in the ovary and uterus. In contrast, very low levels were found in the stomach where sense, GHRL derived RNAs are highly expressed.
GHRLOS RNA transcripts display several distinctive features of non-coding (ncRNA) genes, including 5' capping, polyadenylation, extensive splicing and short open reading frames. The gene is also non-conserved, with differential and tissue-restricted expression. The overlapping genomic arrangement of GHRLOS with the ghrelin gene indicates that it is likely to have interesting regulatory and functional roles in the ghrelin axis.
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|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Keywords:||Ghrelin, gene, non, coding, RNA, antisense, cis, NAT, natural antisense transcript|
|Subjects:||Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES (060000) > GENETICS (060400) > Gene Expression (incl. Microarray and other genome-wide approaches) (060405)|
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES (060000) > GENETICS (060400) > Genome Structure and Regulation (060407)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES (060000) > GENETICS (060400) > Genetics not elsewhere classified (060499)
|Divisions:||Past > QUT Faculties & Divisions > Faculty of Science and Technology|
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
|Copyright Owner:||Copyright 2007 (The authors)|
|Copyright Statement:||This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.|
|Deposited On:||31 Oct 2008|
|Last Modified:||29 Feb 2012 23:47|
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