Effects of Maximal Static Apnea on Antioxidant Defenses in Trained Free Divers
Bulmer, Andrew C., Coombes, Jeff S., Sharman, James E., & Stewart, Ian B. (2008) Effects of Maximal Static Apnea on Antioxidant Defenses in Trained Free Divers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 40(7), pp. 1307-1313.
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Purpose: To investigate the effects of maximal static apnea on plasma antioxidant status, oxidative stress, and antioxidant enzyme activities in trained free divers. Methods: Blood was taken from apnea-trained (Tr) and control (Con) subjects at baseline (B) and after one (A1), three (A3), and five (A5) apneas. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), uric acid, and bilirubin assays assessed plasma antioxidant status and malondialdehyde (MDA) quantified the oxidative stress response. The activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) were determined at baseline and after the fifth apnea. Results: TEAC was significantly higher in divers versus controls after A1 (P G 0.05). A group effect of SOD activity indicated higher activity throughout the protocol in Tr (mean T SD; Con, 43.2 T 10.1 UIg Hbj1; Tr, 50.1 T 7.3 UIg Hbj1; P = 0.04). With no other group differences, the groups’ data were combined. Apnea significantly increased SOD (B, 44.1 T 11.1 UIg Hbj1; A5, 48.1 T 7.5 UIg Hbj1; P G 0.05) and GPx activity (B, 60.5 T 14.9 UIg Hbj1; A5, 70.1 T 16.0 UIg Hbj1; P = 0.02); however, CAT activity decreased (B, 5.25 T 0.59 UImg Hbj1; A5, 5.00 T 0.53 UImg Hbj1; P = 0.03). MDA was unaffected by apnea (P = 0.32). Conclusions: Trained free divers have increased SOD activity during apnea; however, there is little difference in their antioxidant and oxidative stress responses compared with controls. In both groups, acute changes in antioxidant enzyme activities suggest that they may protect from excessive antioxidant depletion and oxidative stress during apnea.
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|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Additional Information:||For more information, please refer to the journal's website (see hypertext link) or contact the author.|
|Keywords:||ENZYMES, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE, GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE, CATALASE, HYPOXIA, BREATH HOLD|
|Subjects:||Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000) > HUMAN MOVEMENT AND SPORTS SCIENCE (110600) > Exercise Physiology (110602)|
|Divisions:||Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health|
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
|Copyright Owner:||Copyright 2008 Lippincott Williams and Wilkins|
|Deposited On:||06 Nov 2008|
|Last Modified:||29 Feb 2012 23:48|
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