Medical image registration and stereo vision using mutual information

Fookes, Clinton Brian (2003) Medical image registration and stereo vision using mutual information. PhD thesis, Queensland University of Technology.


Image registration is a fundamental problem that can be found in a diverse range of fields within the research community. It is used in areas such as engineering, science, medicine, robotics, computer vision and image processing, which often require the process of developing a spatial mapping between sets of data. Registration plays a crucial role in the medical imaging field where continual advances in imaging modalities, including MRI, CT and PET, allow the generation of 3D images that explicitly outline detailed in vivo information of not only human anatomy, but also human function.

Mutual Information (MI) is a popular entropy-based similarity measure which has found use in a large number of image registration applications. Stemming from information theory, this measure generally outperforms most other intensity-based measures in multimodal applications as it does not assume the existence of any specific relationship between image intensities. It only assumes a statistical dependence. The basic concept behind any approach using MI is to find a transformation, which when applied to an image, will maximise the MI between two images. This thesis presents research using MI in three major topics encompassed by the computer vision and medical imaging field: rigid image registration, stereo vision, and non-rigid image registration.

In the rigid domain, a novel gradient-based registration algorithm (MIGH) is proposed that uses Parzen windows to estimate image density functions and Gauss-Hermite quadrature to estimate the image entropies. The use of this quadrature technique provides an effective and efficient way of estimating entropy while bypassing the need to draw a second sample of image intensities (a procedure required in previous Parzen-based MI registration approaches). It is possible to achieve identical results with the MIGH algorithm when compared to current state of the art MI-based techniques. These results are achieved using half the previously required sample sizes, thus doubling the statistical power of the registration algorithm. Furthermore, the MIGH technique improves algorithm complexity by up to an order of N, where N represents the number of samples extracted from the images.

In stereo vision, a popular passive method of depth perception, new extensions have been pro- posed in order to increase the robustness of MI-based stereo matching algorithms. Firstly, prior probabilities are incorporated into the MI measure to considerably increase the statistical power of the matching windows. The statistical power, directly related to the number of samples, can become too low when small matching windows are utilised. These priors, which are calculated from the global joint histogram, are tuned to a two level hierarchical approach. A 2D match surface, in which the match score is computed for every possible combination of template and matching windows, is also utilised to enforce left-right consistency and uniqueness constraints. These additions to MI-based stereo matching significantly enhance the algorithms ability to detect correct matches while decreasing computation time and improving the accuracy, particularly when matching across multi-spectra stereo pairs.

MI has also recently found use in the non-rigid domain due to a need to compute multimodal non-rigid transformations. The viscous fluid algorithm is perhaps the best method for re- covering large local mis-registrations between two images. However, this model can only be used on images from the same modality as it assumes similar intensity values between images. Consequently, a hybrid MI-Fluid algorithm is proposed to compute a multimodal non-rigid registration technique. MI is incorporated via the use of a block matching procedure to generate a sparse deformation field which drives the viscous fluid algorithm, This algorithm is also compared to two other popular local registration techniques, namely Gaussian convolution and the thin-plate spline warp, and is shown to produce comparable results. An improved block matching procedure is also proposed whereby a Reversible Jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo (RJMCMC) sampler is used to optimally locate grid points of interest. These grid points have a larger concentration in regions of high information and a lower concentration in regions of small information. Previous methods utilise only a uniform distribution of grid points throughout the image.

Impact and interest:

3 citations in Web of Science®
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ID Code: 15876
Item Type: QUT Thesis (PhD)
Supervisor: Maeder, Anthony & Campbell, Duncan
Keywords: Computer Vision, Image Registration, Mutual Information, Medical Imaging, Stereo Vision, Stereo Matching, Entropy, Rigid, Non-Rigid, Transformations, Deformation, Correspondence, Disparity map, Gauss-Hermite Quadrature, Parametric Framework, Statistical Power, Block Matching, Viscous Fluid
Department: Faculty of Built Environment and Engineering
Institution: Queensland University of Technology
Copyright Owner: Copyright Clinton Brian Fookes
Deposited On: 03 Dec 2008 03:51
Last Modified: 22 Feb 2013 01:34

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