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Potential involvement of Platelet-Derived microparticles during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty

Craft, Judy Ann (2004) Potential involvement of Platelet-Derived microparticles during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. PhD by Publication, Queensland University of Technology.

Abstract

Coronary artery disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) is an important treatment option when intervention is required; namely for patients with relatively severe occlusions. However, adverse events including recurrence of angina pectoris and restenosis of the treated artery limit patient prognosis, with subsequent re-vascularisation often necessary. Platelet activation accompanies PTCA, with platelet adhesion and aggregation involved in thrombus formation during restenosis. During platelet activation, highly coagulant platelet-derived microparticles (PMPs) are formed, and it is likely that these PMPs will also be produced during PTCA. While platelet aggregation inhibitors used during PTCA limit platelet aggregation and decrease the incidence of restenosis, they do not prevent PMPs being formed. PMPs are capable of adhesion and aggregation, and adhere to PTCA treated arteries in an animal model. Therefore, in order to understand the phenomenon of restenosis and its improved limitation, it is necessary to investigate PMP formation during PTCA.

The field of PMP study is in its infancy, with conflicting results from the substantial inequities in methods of PMP measurement, which may be exacerbated by PMP heterogeneity. The current literature on this topic is reviewed in Chapter 2, where the PMP surface and possible functions are considered, and the PMP size and morphology examined. To conclude, the relationship between PMPs and PTCA is explored, with a focus on the potential role of PMPs in restenosis. The knowledge deficiencies in this field are highlighted at the conclusion of this chapter.

Very little is known regarding the production of PMPs with PTCA. The level of PMPs during PTCA was monitored in paired arterial blood samples obtained from seventy-five patients undergoing the procedure (Chapter 3). A significant increase in PMPs from baseline to completion of PTCA was clearly demonstrated for the first time. This indicated that procoagulant PMPs are produced during PTCA and may contribute to subsequent restenosis. Furthermore, administration of the platelet aggregation inhibitor abciximab to a group of thirty-eight high risk patients limited PMP formation; given that abciximab patients required more rigorous PTCA, the protective benefit of this medication for PMP production is underlined. Although few patients in this study experienced restenosis, it is interesting to note that of those treated with abciximab, all patients suffering subsequent restenosis were revascularised using PTCA. This demonstrates that their occlusions were comparatively mild as the need for coronary artery bypass grafting was avoided, and suggests that minimisation of PMP levels may assist in limiting the progression of severe restenosis.

The increased peripheral level of PMPs predicated investigation of the coronary circulation to determine local events. Although the level of PMPs increased significantly within the coronary arteries of PTCA patients, there was no corresponding increase in the coronary sinus (Chapter 4). This important finding indicated that significant levels of PMPs remained within the coronary circulation, where their ability to adhere, aggregate and accelerate haemostasis may allow them to contribute directly to restenosis. During the time when increased levels of PMPs were being formed, there was no evidence of platelet lysis, which refuted the hypothesis that PMPs are merely membrane fragments of lysed platelets.

A wide variation in reported PMP sizes has contributed to the hypothesis that PMPs are heterogeneous. As morphological information can assist in understanding physiology, the final study was designed to investigate platelet morphology from PTCA patients (Chapter 5). Most platelets were activated prior to and following PTCA, with a slight decrease in body size occurring due to PTCA, presumably due to loss of cytoplasm in PMPs being shed as reported in the previous chapter. Importantly, platelet distal pseudopod buds were observed, and these did not alter significantly with PTCA. These buds were probably unformed PMPs, although the exact mechanism of PMP formation remains undetermined. The platelet pseudopods were longer and significantly thinner distally with PTCA, which may be due to movement of cytoplasm into these terminal swellings. In addition, buds or swellings directly on the platelet body were smaller following PTCA, and it is likely these may also be PMPs prior to detachment from the parent platelet.

This work has contributed substantially to knowledge of PMPs produced during PTCA. The level of PMPs increased significantly in peripheral arterial samples, with the platelet aggregation inhibitor abciximab preventing this occurrence. This may indicate that functional aggregation receptors are an essential requirement for PMP formation under these conditions. However, it is possible for PMPs to be formed when aggregation is inhibited, and therefore the molecular mechanisms of PMP formation remain unconfirmed. The examination of PMPs from the coronary circulation provided valuable data indicating that PMPs are produced during PTCA but remain within the coronary circulation. As PMPs are capable of adhesion and aggregation, this strongly suggests that PMPs within the coronary circulation would contribute directly to pathogenesis of restenosis, although further investigation on PMPs with PTCA is necessary to confirm this association. The examination of platelet morphology during PTCA indicated that platelets possessed terminal pseudopod swellings, and cell surface swellings. Importantly, the terminal swellings, which are likely to be unformed PMPs, were observed for the first time during PTCA.

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ID Code: 15946
Item Type: QUT Thesis (PhD by Publication)
Supervisor: Marsh, Neville& Roberts, Michael
Keywords: Platelet-derived microparticles, platelets, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, abciximab, flow cytometry, scanning electron microscopy.
Divisions: Past > QUT Faculties & Divisions > Faculty of Science and Technology
Past > Schools > School of Life Sciences
Department: Faculty of Science
Institution: Queensland University of Technology
Copyright Owner: Copyright Judy Ann Craft
Deposited On: 03 Dec 2008 13:53
Last Modified: 27 Nov 2013 09:36

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