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Expression variation in lysosomal storage disorder genes

Mason, Lyndel Ann (2006) Expression variation in lysosomal storage disorder genes. PhD thesis, Queensland University of Technology.

Abstract

Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) and Gaucher disease (GD) are caused by a deficiency of arylsulphatase A (ASA) and b-glucocerebrosidase (GBA), respectively. They are lysosomal storage disorders with a heterogeneous clinical spectrum encompassing visceral, skeletal and neurologic involvement resulting in high morbidity and mortality. The overall aim of this study is to elucidate the genetic component/s of high ASA and GBA enzyme activity in normal healthy individuals with the ultimate goal of using this information to produce greater protein activity from a recombinant protein. A wide variation in ASA and GBA enzyme activity levels has been observed in the normal population. The first objective of this project was to identify and characterise single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the arylsulphatase A (ARSA) and glucocerebrosidase (GBA) genes that are responsible for determining the levels of expressed enzyme activity in the normal population. The second objective was to assess the contribution of transcriptional regulation and TCP80 mediated translational control to normal enzyme variation. TCP80, a translational control protein that interacts with the GBA coding region, is a splice variant of the interleukin binding factor 3 (ILF3) gene. Ten samples from individuals with high ASA activity and twenty samples from individuals with high GBA activity were screened for polymorphisms via denaturing high pressure liquid chromatography (dHPLC) and sequencing. The frequency of these polymorphisms in the normal population was determined using dot-blot hybridisation. Fifteen ARSA polymorphisms (4 promoter, 5 coding, 5 intronic and 1 poly(A) signal) and two GBA polymorphisms (1 intronic and 1 in 3¢-UTR) were identified. Two low frequency ASA polymorphisms (2723A > G, W193C) were found to be correlated with low activity, while another low frequency ASA polymorphism (1101+123C > T) was found to be correlated with high activity in a population of 113 individuals. Real time PCR was used to measure mRNA levels of GBA, ASA and LF3 along with enzyme activity levels of GBA and ASA in two cell types (leucocytes and skin fibroblasts) from four healthy individuals and seven cell lines (HL60, THP1, Huh7, U118, SW1353, Hep G2, and B-cells). Transcriptional control was evident for all three genes with GBA mRNA levels varying over 30 fold, ASA mRNA levels varying over seven fold and ILF3 levels varying more than 24 fold. The 5¢-flanking region of GBA was investigated for the cis-elements responsible for tissue-specific expression. However, it was not possible to demonstrate that the cis-element region was influencing GBA expression. Translational efficiency was measured using the magnitude of the mRNA:enzyme activity ratio as an indicator. GBA translational inefficiency was most pronounced in B cells which require four times more mRNA molecules than hepatocytes (Hep G2) and over 25 times more mRNA molecules than chondrocytes (SW1353) to produce one unit of GBA enzyme activity. Except in B-cells, GBA translational efficiency appears to increase as ILF3 mRNA levels decrease. The tissue-specific variation observed in the protein levels of the ILF3 splice variants, TCP80 and DRBP76, may play a role. The correlation of several low frequency SNPs with low ASA enzyme activity or high ASA activity indicates a role in determining the distribution of enzyme activity levels in the normal population. However, there do not appear to be any common high activity polymorphisms. Knowledge of the exact mechanisms responsible for the observed transcriptional and translational control of these lysosomal genes will greatly enhance the understanding of genotype-phenotype correlation and the contribution of genetic variants to natural variation.

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ID Code: 16240
Item Type: QUT Thesis (PhD)
Supervisor: Morris, Charles& van Daal, Angela
Keywords: gaucher disease, GD, glucocerebrosidase gene, GBA, glucocerebrosidase, GBA, metachromatic leucodystrophy, MLD, arylsulphatase A gene, ARSA, arylsulphatase A, ASA, single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, promoter, transcriptional regulation, translational regulation, lysosomal storage disorders, LSDs
Divisions: Past > QUT Faculties & Divisions > Faculty of Science and Technology
Past > Schools > School of Life Sciences
Department: Faculty of Science
Institution: Queensland University of Technology
Copyright Owner: Copyright Lyndel Ann Mason
Deposited On: 03 Dec 2008 13:59
Last Modified: 29 Oct 2011 05:45

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