Effectiveness of self-management for persons with type 2 diabetes following the implementation of a self-efficacy enhancing intervention program in Taiwan

Wu, Shu Fang (2007) Effectiveness of self-management for persons with type 2 diabetes following the implementation of a self-efficacy enhancing intervention program in Taiwan. PhD thesis, Queensland University of Technology.



The aim of this study firstly, was to translate and test the validity and reliability of two diabetes-specific self-efficacy instruments (the Diabetes Management Self-Efficacy Scale; DMSES and the Perceived Therapeutic Efficacy Scale; PTES) in a Taiwanese population. The main aim of this study was then to develop an intervention based on self-efficacy theory that was appropriate for the Taiwanese population and to examine the effects of a self-efficacy enhancing intervention program (SEEIP).


In Taiwan, the prevalence, mortality rate and healthcare cost of diabetes has dramatically increased. People with diabetes have low participation rates in performing self-care activities, with some two-thirds of diabetic patients not controlling their disease appropriately. Moreover, few studies in Taiwan have conducted randomised controlled trials or had improvement in patient self-care or self-management as their primary goal and no instruments that measure self-efficacy related to the management of diabetes (especially for outcome expectations) have yet been found and appropriately used to measure the effectiveness of self-management. Therefore, there is a particular need for research on self-efficacy enhancing intervention programs for people with type 2 diabetes.


A convenience sample survey (n=230) was used in order to test the validity and reliability of C-DMSES and C-PTES in a Taiwanese population. Moreover, a randomised controlled trial (RCT) (n=145; the intervention group (72); the control group (73)) design was conducted in the main study with pre (baseline) and post-testing (undertaken at 3 months and 6 months following baseline collection).


Both the control group and intervention group received the standard diabetic educational program in the outpatient clinic. The intervention group participants received the standard diabetic educational program and the following additional interventions: (1) viewed a 10-minute DVD (2) received a &quotDiabetes Self-Care" booklet (3) participated in four efficacy- enhancing counselling intervention sessions, and (4) participated in telephone follow-up. The self-efficacy model was adapted from Shortridge-Baggett & van der Bijl (1996). Diabetes self-management principles were used in program development and evaluation.

Main outcome measures

Instruments used in data collection included 1) Self-efficacy towards management of type 2 diabetes (as measured by the Chinese version of the Diabetes Management Self-Efficacy Scale; C-DMSES and the Chinese version of the Perceived Therapeutic Efficacy Scale; C-PTES); 2) self management behavior (as measured by the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities; SDSCA); 3) health-related quality of life for diabetes (as measured by the Short Form-12; SF-12); 4) psychosocial well-being (as measured by the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS), Social Support Survey (SSS) tool and the Center for Epidemiology Studies Short Depression Scale; CES-D) and 5) health care utilisation (as measured by health care utilisation self report instrument).

Data analysis

Data were double-entered for verification using SPSS® statistical software. Study I: Descriptive statistics, regression analysis, Pearson's correlation, Cronbach's alpha-coefficients, factor analysis and Bland-Altman plots with 95% limits of agreement (LOA) were performed to evaluate validity and reliability of C-DMSES and C-PTES.

Study II: Descriptive analysis was used to examine demographic variables and outcome variables. T-tests were used to analyse differences on continuous data between mean scores for the intervention and control groups. Categorical data were analysed using Chi-square statistics to test the significance of different proportions. To assess the group differences of dependent variable changes, repeated measures ANOVA/ ANCOVA were used.


Study I: Convergent validity showed that C-DMSES correlated well with the validated measure of the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE) in measuring self-efficacy. Criterion-related validity showed that the C-DMSES was a significant predictor of the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA) scores. Factor analysis supported the C-DMSES being composed of four subscales with good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=.77 to .93) and stability (ICC=.82).

Similarly, significant criterion-related validity was demonstrated between the C-PTES and SDSCA scores. Convergent validity was confirmed as the C-PTES converged well with the GSE Scale in measuring self-efficacy. Construct validity of the C-PTES was confirmed through factor analysis and a single subscale formed. Internal consistency with a Cronbach's alpha was .95 and the test-retest reliability (ICC) was .77 and a Bland-Altman plot showed 97% of the subjects were within 2 standard deviations of the mean.

Study II: The 3- and 6-month benefits of the intervention over usual care were increases in self-efficacy, outcome expectation, self-care activities, and social support.

However, the results of the health-related quality of life and depression scores indicated that the change over time was not different in the two groups. A smaller proportion of the participants significantly in the intervention group, had been hospitalised and visited the emergency room than participants who were in the control group at the 6-month period. However, health-related quality of life and depression were not significantly increased in the intervention group at the 3- and 6-month compared to the control group.


Results of Study I support the psychometric properties of C-DMSES and C-PTES in providing a measure for self-efficacy specific to persons with type 2 diabetes in Taiwan. The main study revealed that the SEEIP for type 2 diabetes based on self-efficacy theory was culturally acceptable to Taiwanese people with diabetes and that the SEEIP was effective in the self-management of people with type 2 diabetes.

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ID Code: 16385
Item Type: QUT Thesis (PhD)
Supervisor: Courtney, Mary, Edwards, Helen, McDowell, Janis, Chang, Pei, & Shortridge-Baggett, Lillie
Keywords: type 2 diabetes, randomised controlled trial, self-management, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, self-efficacy enhancing intervention program (SEEIP), self-care, health-related quality of life, psychosocial well-being, social support, depression, health care utilisation
Divisions: Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Current > Schools > School of Nursing
Department: Faculty of Health
Institution: Queensland University of Technology
Copyright Owner: Copyright Shu Fang Wu
Deposited On: 03 Dec 2008 04:02
Last Modified: 28 Oct 2011 19:47

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