Hybrid 2D and 3D face verification

McCool, Christopher Steven (2007) Hybrid 2D and 3D face verification. PhD thesis, Queensland University of Technology.


Face verification is a challenging pattern recognition problem. The face is a biometric that, we as humans, know can be recognised. However, the face is highly deformable and its appearance alters significantly when the pose, illumination or expression changes. These changes in appearance are most notable for texture images, or two-dimensional (2D) data. But the underlying structure of the face, or three dimensional

(3D) data, is not changed by pose or illumination variations.

Over the past five years methods have been investigated to combine 2D and

3D face data to improve the accuracy and robustness of face verification. Much of this research has examined the fusion of a 2D verification system and a 3D verification system, known as multi-modal classifier score fusion. These verification systems usually compare two feature vectors (two image representations), a and b, using distance or angular-based similarity measures. However, this does not provide the most complete description of the features being compared as the distances describe at best the covariance of the data, or the second order statistics (for instance Mahalanobis based measures).

A more complete description would be obtained by describing the distribution of the feature vectors. However, feature distribution modelling is rarely applied to face verification because a large number of observations is required to train the models. This amount of data is usually unavailable and so this research examines two methods for overcoming this data limitation:

  1. the use of holistic difference vectors of the face, and

  2. by dividing the 3D face into Free-Parts.

The permutations of the holistic difference vectors is formed so that more observations are obtained from a set of holistic features. On the other hand, by dividing the face into parts and considering each part separately many observations are obtained from each face image; this approach is referred to as the Free-Parts approach. The extra observations from both these techniques are used to perform holistic feature distribution modelling and Free-Parts feature distribution modelling respectively. It is shown that the feature distribution modelling of these features leads to an improved 3D face verification system and an effective 2D face verification system. Using these two feature distribution techniques classifier score fusion is then examined.

This thesis also examines methods for performing classifier fusion score fusion.

Classifier score fusion attempts to combine complementary information from multiple classifiers. This complementary information can be obtained in two ways: by using different algorithms (multi-algorithm fusion) to represent the same face data for instance the 2D face data or by capturing the face data with different sensors (multimodal fusion) for instance capturing 2D and 3D face data. Multi-algorithm fusion is approached as combining verification systems that use holistic features and local features (Free-Parts) and multi-modal fusion examines the combination of 2D and 3D face data using all of the investigated techniques.

The results of the fusion experiments show that multi-modal fusion leads to a consistent improvement in performance. This is attributed to the fact that the data being fused is collected by two different sensors, a camera and a laser scanner. In deriving the multi-algorithm and multi-modal algorithms a consistent framework for fusion was developed.

The consistent fusion framework, developed from the multi-algorithm and multimodal experiments, is used to combine multiple algorithms across multiple modalities. This fusion method, referred to as hybrid fusion, is shown to provide improved performance over either fusion system on its own. The experiments show that the final hybrid face verification system reduces the False Rejection Rate from 8:59% for the best 2D verification system and 4:48% for the best 3D verification system to 0:59% for the hybrid verification system; at a False Acceptance Rate of 0:1%.

Impact and interest:

Citation counts are sourced monthly from Scopus and Web of Science® citation databases.

These databases contain citations from different subsets of available publications and different time periods and thus the citation count from each is usually different. Some works are not in either database and no count is displayed. Scopus includes citations from articles published in 1996 onwards, and Web of Science® generally from 1980 onwards.

Citations counts from the Google Scholar™ indexing service can be viewed at the linked Google Scholar™ search.

Full-text downloads:

463 since deposited on 03 Dec 2008
13 in the past twelve months

Full-text downloads displays the total number of times this work’s files (e.g., a PDF) have been downloaded from QUT ePrints as well as the number of downloads in the previous 365 days. The count includes downloads for all files if a work has more than one.

ID Code: 16436
Item Type: QUT Thesis (PhD)
Supervisor: Chandran, Vinod & Sridharan, Subramanian
Keywords: computer vision, face recognition, two-dimensional, three-dimensional, multi-modal, multi-algorithm, fusion, pattern recognition, biometrics, principal component analysis, two-dimensional discrete cosine transform, classifier fusion, face verification, feature distribution modelling and Gaussian mixture modelling
Divisions: Past > QUT Faculties & Divisions > Faculty of Built Environment and Engineering
Past > Schools > School of Engineering Systems
Department: Faculty of Built Environment and Engineering
Institution: Queensland University of Technology
Copyright Owner: Copyright Christopher Steven McCool
Deposited On: 03 Dec 2008 04:03
Last Modified: 22 Feb 2013 06:14

Export: EndNote | Dublin Core | BibTeX

Repository Staff Only: item control page