Effectiveness of a specific infection control education program for Taiwanese nursing students

Wu, Chia Jung (2007) Effectiveness of a specific infection control education program for Taiwanese nursing students. PhD thesis, Queensland University of Technology.


The purpose of the study

The purpose of this research project was to develop and test an educational program for preparing Taiwanese nursing students for clinical practice.

Study background

The SARS outbreak revealed that health care professionals were ill-prepared for coping with the disease epidemic in terms of the rapid transmission of the infection, the high mortality and morbidity rate among health care workers, and the significant impacts on the public and health care personnel. Frontline nurses were the group at highest risk of becoming infected, as they are the health care personally that provide direct health care to infected patients. However, to date the ability of Taiwanese frontline nurses to respond to such a disease epidemic has not been examined.

Study design

This research project incorporated a three phase design, presented in the form of two separate studies. A small qualitative exploratory study was undertaken to validate the assumptions emerging from international literature regarding the preparedness nurses in managing an infection outbreak. The information gained was used to construct an infection control education program (Study I). A quasi-experimental design, using pre- and post-tests and experimental and control groups was then used to test the effectiveness of the education intervention (Study II).


A purposive sampling technique was used in the qualitative exploratory study, whereby six Taiwanese nurses who had provided direct nursing care to patients with SARS were interviewed. A convenience sampling approach was utilised in the quantitative study, which aimed to test the effectiveness of educational intervention. This, second study, had 175 participants in total, 80 in the experimental group and 95 in the control group. All participants were enrolled in the first semester of their fourth year in a five-year nursing program in two selected junior nursing colleges.

The education intervention

The purpose-designed standard and additional precautions (SnAP) program was the intervention. The experimental group received a SnAP program which consisted of 16 hours of classes over 16 weeks. The control group received a conventional education program.

Data collection and instrument

Data were collected at three time points during the study (baseline, four months, six month) using validated instrument. The reliability and validity of the instrument was established in a pilot study with a Taiwanese population prior to the present study.

Data analysis

t-tests and chi-square analyses were performed to assess any differences across demographic variables and baseline outcome variables between the experimental and control groups. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs were used to examine the scores of the intervention and control groups across three time points.


The data revealed that, at six months following the education program, there was a statistically significant improvement in the knowledge (F [2,180] =13.53, p=0.001) and confidence (F [2,94] =4.88, p= 0.01) of infection precautions in the intervention group compared to the control group. Also, the means of knowledge and confidence in intervention group showed a consistently increased across three time points; whereas, the mean of confidence relating infection control management in the control group resulted a drop at time 3. Although the application skills relating to infection control procedures did not show a statistically significant change during this period (F [2, 174] = 2.54, p=0.081), there were minor improvements in these scores at the six-month follow-up assessment.


The SnAP program had a positive impact on Taiwanese nursing students' readiness for clinical placement and potential outbreak of disease epidemics. Participation increased their knowledge about infection control precautions, their ability to properly use these specific precautions, and their confidence in solving infection-related issues in clinical practice.

Impact and interest:

Citation counts are sourced monthly from Scopus and Web of Science® citation databases.

These databases contain citations from different subsets of available publications and different time periods and thus the citation count from each is usually different. Some works are not in either database and no count is displayed. Scopus includes citations from articles published in 1996 onwards, and Web of Science® generally from 1980 onwards.

Citations counts from the Google Scholar™ indexing service can be viewed at the linked Google Scholar™ search.

Full-text downloads:

987 since deposited on 03 Dec 2008
45 in the past twelve months

Full-text downloads displays the total number of times this work’s files (e.g., a PDF) have been downloaded from QUT ePrints as well as the number of downloads in the previous 365 days. The count includes downloads for all files if a work has more than one.

ID Code: 16541
Item Type: QUT Thesis (PhD)
Supervisor: Gardner, Glenn & Chang, Anne
Keywords: infection control, standard and additional precautions, infection control precautions, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), infection control education program, nursing curriculum, nursing education
Divisions: Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Current > Schools > School of Nursing
Department: Faculty of Health
Institution: Queensland University of Technology
Copyright Owner: Copyright Chia Jung Wu
Deposited On: 03 Dec 2008 04:05
Last Modified: 13 May 2012 22:11

Export: EndNote | Dublin Core | BibTeX

Repository Staff Only: item control page