Investigating and developing a model for iris changes under varied lighting conditions
Phang, Shiau Shing (2007) Investigating and developing a model for iris changes under varied lighting conditions. Masters by Research thesis, Queensland University of Technology.
Biometric identification systems have several distinct advantages over other authentication technologies, such as passwords, in reliably recognising individuals. Iris based recognition is one such biometric recognition system. Unlike other biometrics such as fingerprints or face images, the distinct aspect of the iris comes from its randomly distributed features. The patterns of these randomly distributed features on the iris have been proved to be fixed in a person's lifetime, and are stable over time for healthy eyes except for the distortions caused by the constriction and dilation of the pupil.
The distortion of the iris pattern caused by pupillary activity, which is mainly due changes in ambient lighting conditions, can be significant. One important question that arises from this is: How closely do two different iris images of the same person, taken at different times using different cameras, in different environments, and under different lighting conditions, agree with each other? It is also problematic for iris recognition systems to correctly identify a person when his/her pupil size is very different from the person's iris images, used at the time of constructing the system's data-base. To date, researchers in the field of iris recognition have made attempts to address this problem, with varying degrees of success. However, there is still a need to conduct in-depth investigations into this matter in order to arrive at more reliable solutions.
It is therefore necessary to study the behaviour of iris surface deformation caused by the change of lighting conditions. In this thesis, a study of the physiological behaviour of pupil size variation under different normal indoor lighting conditions (100 lux ~ 1,200 lux) and brightness levels is presented. The thesis also presents the results of applying Elastic Graph Matching (EGM) tracking techniques to study the mechanisms of iris surface deformation.
A study of the pupil size variation under different normal indoor lighting conditions was conducted. The study showed that the behaviour of the pupil size can be significantly different from one person to another under the same lighting conditions.
There was no evidence from this study to show that the exact pupil sizes of an individual can be determined at a given illumination level. However, the range of pupil sizes can be estimated for a range of specific lighting conditions. The range of average pupil sizes under normal indoor lighting found was between 3 mm and 4 mm.
One of the advantages of using EGM for iris surface deformation tracking is that it incorporates the benefit of the use of Gabor wavelets to encode the iris features for tracking. The tracking results showed that the radial stretch of the iris surface is nonlinear. However, the amount of extension of iris surface at any point on the iris during the stretch is approximately linear. The analyses of the tracking results also showed that the behaviour of iris surface deformation is different from one person to another. This implies that a generalised iris surface deformation model cannot be established for personal identification. However, a deformation model can be established for every individual based on their analysis result, which can be useful for personal verification using the iris.
Therefore, analysis of the tracking results of each individual was used to model iris surface deformations for that individual. The model was able to estimate the movement of a point on the iris surface at a particular pupil size. This makes it possible to estimate and construct the 2D deformed iris image of a desired pupil size from a given iris image of another different pupil size. The estimated deformed iris images were compared with their actual images for similarity, using an intensitybased (zero mean normalised cross-correlation). The result shows that 86% of the comparisons have over 65% similarity between the estimated and actual iris image. Preliminary tests of the estimated deformed iris images using an open-source iris recognition algorithm have showed an improved personal verification performance.
The studies presented in this thesis were conducted using a very small sample of iris images and therefore should not be generalised, before further investigations are conducted.
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|Item Type:||QUT Thesis (Masters by Research)|
|Supervisor:||Boles, Wageeh& Collins, Michael|
|Keywords:||iris surface deformation, iris movement, mechanisms of iris movement, change of pupil size, elastic graph matching, Gabor wavelets, image warping, biometrics based recognition, iris recognition|
|Divisions:||Past > QUT Faculties & Divisions > Faculty of Built Environment and Engineering|
Past > Schools > School of Engineering Systems
|Department:||Faculty of Built Environment and Engineering|
|Institution:||Queensland University of Technology|
|Copyright Owner:||Copyright Shiau Shing Phang|
|Deposited On:||03 Dec 2008 14:08|
|Last Modified:||29 Oct 2011 05:50|
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