Inverse diffraction propagation applied to the parabolic wave equation model for geolocation applications

Spencer, Troy Allan (2006) Inverse diffraction propagation applied to the parabolic wave equation model for geolocation applications. PhD thesis, Queensland University of Technology.

Abstract

Localisation, which is a mechanism for discovering the spatial relationship between objects, is an area that has received considerable research and development in recent times. A common name given to localisation operations based on the absolute reference frame of Earth is Geolocation. One important example of geolocation research is E-911, where wireless carriers in the United States must provide the location of 911 callers. The operation of E-911 can be based on either a network configuration, or the Global Positioning System (GPS). With the importance of localisation being acknowledged, a review concerning the vulnerability of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is provided as background and motivation for this research. With the current vulnerability of GNSS, this dissertation presents the results of a research program undertaken with the objective of developing an electromagnetic localisation technique that can determine the relative position of GPS Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) sources. Intended for operation in a hostile environment, blind and passive localisation methodologies must be incorporated into the developed model.

In performing localisation research, a background of current techniques is provided in addition to a review of current electromagnetic propagation models. From the review of propagation models, the Parabolic Equation Model (PEM) was chosen for investigation concerning localisation. The selection of PEM is due to model properties that are required for blind/passive localisation. The localisation system developed in this research program is based on the integration of inverse diffraction propagation (IDP) within the parabolic equation model. The title chosen for the localisation method is Inverse Diffraction Parabolic Equation Localisation System (IDPELS).

This thesis presents the simulation and field trial results of IDPELS. Under simulation, the terrain or obstacle profiles were not based on any geodetic datum. Any estimate provided by IDPELS under simulation is therefore a "Localisation" solution. In the field trials however, IDPELS operation is referred to as "Geolocation" as geodetic datum's where used to determine the receiver's position.

Under simulation analysis, IDPELS operation was considered to provide good promise as it could simultaneously perform localisation on multiple transmission sources. In each investigated simulation scenario, a display of signals amplitude (dB units) is displayed over the entire region. By determining the field convergence regions, a localisation estimate of IDPELS is provided. By defining the convergence regions as areas having the greatest signal amplitude values (i.e. ≥ 99%), elliptical areas as low as 3.2m² were considered to indicate an excellent localisation capability.

With the theoretical validity of IDPELS operation in electromagnetics having been established under simulation, further investigation into the practical feasibility of the IDPELS was performed. The field trials positioned a continuous-wave (CW) transmission source at a known location. By measuring signal phasors along a straight section of road, the geodetic spatial-phase profile was used as the input signal for IDPELS. Road sections used were cross-wise to the transmitter's boresight. Many data sets were recorded, each being made over a sixty second time period. Different regions and ranges where used to continuously measure the spatial-phase profile of the signal with fixed antennas in a moving vehicle. Such a measurement process introduced an analogy with Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) processes. In quantitating the accuracy of the IDPELS geolocation estimate in field trials, the linear error of range and cross-range components was analysed. A free-space PEM model was chosen for development of IDPELS and hence, data sets demonstrating properties of a free-space environment were able to be considered suitable for testing of the geolocation method. Data sets demonstrating free-space propagation characteristics were measured at the base of the Mt Lofty ranges in South Australia, where the range and cross-range error are respectively 3.14m, and 0.15m. Such low error values clearly demonstrate the practical feasibility of IDPELS geolocation. With the practical feasibility of IDPELS having been established in this research program, a novel contribution to electromagnetic geolocation methodologies is provided. An important characteristic of any geolocation technique concerns its robustness to operate in a wide variety of possible environments. With continued development of IDPELS, the robustness of this passive/blind geolocation technique can be enhanced. Further assistance with geolocation of multiple transmission sources is also indicated to be available by IDPELS, as shown in the simulation analysis.

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ID Code: 16681
Item Type: QUT Thesis (PhD)
Supervisor: Walker, Rodney & Tang, Tee
Keywords: global positioning system, global navigation satellite system, electromagnetic propagation model, inverse diffraction propagation, parabolic equation model, Huygens principle model, blind localisation, passive localisation, geolocation, radio frequency interference
Divisions: Past > QUT Faculties & Divisions > Faculty of Built Environment and Engineering
Department: Faculty of Built Environment and Engineering
Institution: Queensland University of Technology
Copyright Owner: Copyright Troy Allan Spencer
Deposited On: 03 Dec 2008 04:08
Last Modified: 28 Oct 2011 19:51

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