Synchronous HMMs for audio-visual speech processing
Dean, David Brendan (2008) Synchronous HMMs for audio-visual speech processing. .
Both human perceptual studies and automaticmachine-based experiments have shown that visual information from a speaker's mouth region can improve the robustness of automatic speech processing tasks, especially in the presence of acoustic noise. By taking advantage of the complementary nature of the acoustic and visual speech information, audio-visual speech processing (AVSP) applications can work reliably in more real-world situations than would be possible with traditional acoustic speech processing applications. The two most prominent applications of AVSP for viable human-computer-interfaces involve the recognition of the speech events themselves, and the recognition of speaker's identities based upon their speech. However, while these two fields of speech and speaker recognition are closely related, there has been little systematic comparison of the two tasks under similar conditions in the existing literature. Accordingly, the primary focus of this thesis is to compare the suitability of general AVSP techniques for speech or speaker recognition, with a particular focus on synchronous hidden Markov models (SHMMs). The cascading appearance-based approach to visual speech feature extraction has been shown to work well in removing irrelevant static information from the lip region to greatly improve visual speech recognition performance. This thesis demonstrates that these dynamic visual speech features also provide for an improvement in speaker recognition, showing that speakers can be visually recognised by how they speak, in addition to their appearance alone. This thesis investigates a number of novel techniques for training and decoding of SHMMs that improve the audio-visual speech modelling ability of the SHMM approach over the existing state-of-the-art joint-training technique. Novel experiments are conducted within to demonstrate that the reliability of the two streams during training is of little importance to the final performance of the SHMM. Additionally, two novel techniques of normalising the acoustic and visual state classifiers within the SHMM structure are demonstrated for AVSP. Fused hidden Markov model (FHMM) adaptation is introduced as a novel method of adapting SHMMs from existing wellperforming acoustic hidden Markovmodels (HMMs). This technique is demonstrated to provide improved audio-visualmodelling over the jointly-trained SHMMapproach at all levels of acoustic noise for the recognition of audio-visual speech events. However, the close coupling of the SHMM approach will be shown to be less useful for speaker recognition, where a late integration approach is demonstrated to be superior.
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|Item Type:||QUT Thesis (PhD)|
|Supervisor:||Sridharan, Subramanian, Chandran, Vinod, & Wark, Tim|
|Keywords:||speech processing, speech recognition, speaker recognition, speaker verification,multimodal, audio-visual, data fusion, pattern recognition, hidden Markov models, synchronous hidden Markov models|
|Divisions:||Past > QUT Faculties & Divisions > Faculty of Built Environment and Engineering|
|Institution:||Queensland University of Technology|
|Deposited On:||10 Feb 2009 16:18|
|Last Modified:||29 Oct 2011 05:51|
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