Comparison of ultrafine particle release from hardcopy devices in emission test chambers and office rooms
Schripp, T. , Mulakampilly, S.J. , Delius, W. , Uhde, E. , Wensing, M. , Salthammer, T. , Kreuzig, R. , Bahadir, M. , Wang, L., & Morawska, L. (2009) Comparison of ultrafine particle release from hardcopy devices in emission test chambers and office rooms. Gefahrstoffe – Reinhaltung der Luft, 69(3), pp. 71-76.
The release of ultrafine particles (UFP) from laser printers and office equipment was analyzed using a particle counter (FMPS; Fast Mobility Particle Sizer) with a high time resolution, as well as the appropriate mathematical models. Measurements were carried out in a 1 m³ chamber, a 24 m³ chamber and an office. The time-dependent emission rates were calculated for these environments using a deconvolution model, after which the total amount of emitted particles was calculated. The total amounts of released particles were found to be independent of the environmental parameters and therefore, in principle, they were appropriate for the comparison of different printers. On the basis of the time-dependent emission rates, “initial burst” emitters and constant emitters could also be distinguished. In the case of an “initial burst” emitter, the comparison to other devices is generally affected by strong variations between individual measurements. When conducting exposure assessments for UFP in an office, the spatial distribution of the particles also had to be considered. In this work, the spatial distribution was predicted on a case by case basis, using CFD simulation.
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