Particle emissions, volatility, and toxicity from an ethanol fumigated compression ignition engine
Surawski, Nicholas C., Miljevic, Branka, Roberts, Boyd A., Modini, Robin L., Situ, Rong, Brown, Richard J., Bottle, Steven E., & Ristovski, Zoran D. (2010) Particle emissions, volatility, and toxicity from an ethanol fumigated compression ignition engine. Environmental Science and Technology, 44(1), pp. 229-235.
Particle emissions, volatility, and the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were investigated for a pre-Euro I compression ignition engine to study the potential health impacts of employing ethanol fumigation technology. Engine testing was performed in two separate experimental campaigns with most testing performed at intermediate speed with four different load settings and various ethanol substitutions. A scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) was used to determine particle size distributions, a volatilization tandem differential mobility analyzer (V-TDMA) was used to explore particle volatility, and a new profluorescent nitroxide probe, BPEAnit, was used to investigate the potential toxicity of particles. The greatest particulate mass reduction was achieved with ethanol fumigation at full load, which contributed to the formation of a nucleation mode. Ethanol fumigation increased the volatility of particles by coating the particles with organic material or by making extra organic material available as an external mixture. In addition, the particle-related ROS concentrations increased with ethanol fumigation and were associated with the formation of a nucleation mode. The smaller particles, the increased volatility, and the increase in potential particle toxicity with ethanol fumigation may provide a substantial barrier for the uptake of fumigation technology using ethanol as a supplementary fuel.
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|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Additional Information:||This article is freely available from the American Chemical Society website 12 months after the publication date. See links to publisher website in this record.|
|Keywords:||Particle Emissions, Volatility, Reactive Oxygen Species, Health Impacts, Ethanol Fumigation Technology|
|Subjects:||Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > CHEMICAL SCIENCE (030000) > ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (030500) > Free Radical Chemistry (030501)|
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > ENGINEERING (090000) > AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERING (090200) > Automotive Combustion and Fuel Engineering (incl. Alternative/Renewable Fuels) (090201)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > ENGINEERING (090000) > INTERDISCIPLINARY ENGINEERING (091500) > Interdisciplinary Engineering not elsewhere classified (091599)
|Divisions:||Past > QUT Faculties & Divisions > Faculty of Built Environment and Engineering|
Past > QUT Faculties & Divisions > Faculty of Science and Technology
Past > Schools > School of Engineering Systems
|Copyright Owner:||Copyright 2010 American Chemical Society|
|Deposited On:||07 Jan 2010 07:46|
|Last Modified:||01 Mar 2012 11:51|
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