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Porous polyurethane coatings bonded onto surface-modified titanium substrates for the growth of an endothelial cell layer

Sin, DongChoon (2010) Porous polyurethane coatings bonded onto surface-modified titanium substrates for the growth of an endothelial cell layer. PhD thesis, Queensland University of Technology.

Abstract

Cardiovascular diseases refer to the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins). Examples of medical devices for treating the cardiovascular diseases include ventricular assist devices (VADs), artificial heart valves and stents. Metallic biomaterials such as titanium and its alloy are commonly used for ventricular assist devices. However, titanium and its alloy show unacceptable thrombosis, which represents a major obstacle to be overcome. Polyurethane (PU) polymer has better blood compatibility and has been used widely in cardiovascular devices. Thus one aim of the project was to coat a PU polymer onto a titanium substrate by increasing the surface roughness, and surface functionality.

Since the endothelium of a blood vessel has the most ideal non-thrombogenic properties, it was the target of this research project to grow an endothelial cell layer as a biological coating based on the tissue engineering strategy. However, seeding endothelial cells on the smooth PU coating surfaces is problematic due to the quick loss of seeded cells which do not adhere to the PU surface. Thus it was another aim of the project to create a porous PU top layer on the dense PU pre-layer-coated titanium substrate.

The method of preparing the porous PU layer was based on the solvent casting/particulate leaching (SCPL) modified with centrifugation. Without the step of centrifugation, the distribution of the salt particles was not uniform within the polymer solution, and the degree of interconnection between the salt particles was not well controlled. Using the centrifugal treatment, the pore distribution became uniform and the pore interconnectivity was improved even at a high polymer solution concentration (20%) as the maximal salt weight was added in the polymer solution.

The titanium surfaces were modified by alkli and heat treatment, followed by functionlisation using hydrogen peroxide. A silane coupling agent was coated before the application of the dense PU pre-layer and the porous PU top layer. The ability of the porous top layer to grow and retain the endothelial cells was also assessed through cell culture techniques. The bonding strengths of the PU coatings to the modified titanium substrates were measured and related to the surface morphologies. The outcome of the project is that it has laid a foundation to achieve the strategy of endothelialisation for the blood compatibility of medical devices.
This thesis is divided into seven chapters. Chapter 2 describes the current state of the art in the field of surface modification in cardiovascular devices such as ventricular assist devices (VADs). It also analyses the pros and cons of the existing coatings, particularly in the context of this research. The surface coatings for VADs have evolved from early organic/ inorganic (passive) coatings, to bioactive coatings (e.g. biomolecules), and to cell-based coatings. Based on the commercial applications and the potential of the coatings, the relevant review is focused on the following six types of coatings: (1) titanium nitride (TiN) coatings, (2) diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings, (3) 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) polymer coatings, (4) heparin coatings, (5) textured surfaces, and (6) endothelial cell lining.

Chapter 3 reviews the polymer scaffolds and one relevant fabrication method. In tissue engineering, the function of a polymeric material is to provide a 3-dimensional architecture (scaffold) which is typically used to accommodate transplanted cells and to guide their growth and the regeneration of tissue. The success of these systems is dependent on the design of the tissue engineering scaffolds.

Chapter 4 describes chemical surface treatments for titanium and titanium alloys to increase the bond strength to polymer by altering the substrate surface, for example, by increasing surface roughness or changing surface chemistry. The nature of the surface treatment prior to bonding is found to be a major factor controlling the bonding strength. By increasing surface roughness, an increase in surface area occurs, which allows the adhesive to flow in and around the irregularities on the surface to form a mechanical bond. Changing surface chemistry also results in the formation of a chemical bond.

Chapter 5 shows that bond strengths between titanium and polyurethane could be significantly improved by surface treating the titanium prior to bonding. Alkaline heat treatment and H2O2 treatment were applied to change the surface roughness and the surface chemistry of titanium. Surface treatment increases the bond strength by altering the substrate surface in a number of ways, including increasing the surface roughness and changing the surface chemistry.

Chapter 6 deals with the characterization of the polyurethane scaffolds, which were fabricated using an enhanced solvent casting/particulate (salt) leaching (SCPL) method developed for preparing three-dimensional porous scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering. The enhanced method involves the combination of a conventional SCPL method and a step of centrifugation, with the centrifugation being employed to improve the pore uniformity and interconnectivity of the scaffolds. It is shown that the enhanced SCPL method and a collagen coating resulted in a spatially uniform distribution of cells throughout the collagen-coated PU scaffolds.In Chapter 7, the enhanced SCPL method is used to form porous features on the polyurethane-coated titanium substrate. The cavities anchored the endothelial cells to remain on the blood contacting surfaces. It is shown that the surface porosities created by the enhanced SCPL may be useful in forming a stable endothelial layer upon the blood contacting surface.

Chapter 8 finally summarises the entire work performed on the fabrication and analysis of the polymer-Ti bonding, the enhanced SCPL method and the PU microporous surface on the metallic substrate. It then outlines the possibilities for future work and research in this area.

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ID Code: 31881
Item Type: QUT Thesis (PhD)
Supervisor: Miao, Xigeng, Chadwick, Gary, & Kelson, Neil
Keywords: polyurethane, coatings, titanium substrates, endothelial cells
Divisions: Past > QUT Faculties & Divisions > Faculty of Built Environment and Engineering
Institution: Queensland University of Technology
Deposited On: 21 Apr 2010 09:09
Last Modified: 29 Oct 2011 05:56

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