Experimental investigation of a turbulent reacting plume
Brown, Richard J. (1996) Experimental investigation of a turbulent reacting plume. PhD thesis, The University of Sydney.
An experimental investigation has been made of a round, non-buoyant plume of nitric oxide, NO, in a turbulent grid flow of ozone, 03, using the Turbulent Smog Chamber at the University of Sydney. The measurements have been made at a resolution not previously reported in the literature. The reaction is conducted at non-equilibrium so there is significant interaction between turbulent mixing and chemical reaction. The plume has been characterized by a set of constant initial reactant concentration measurements consisting of radial profiles at various axial locations. Whole plume behaviour can thus be characterized and parameters are selected for a second set of fixed physical location measurements where the effects of varying the initial reactant concentrations are investigated. Careful experiment design and specially developed chemilurninescent analysers, which measure fluctuating concentrations of reactive scalars, ensure that spatial and temporal resolutions are adequate to measure the quantities of interest. Conserved scalar theory is used to define a conserved scalar from the measured reactive scalars and to define frozen, equilibrium and reaction dominated cases for the reactive scalars. Reactive scalar means and the mean reaction rate are bounded by frozen and equilibrium limits but this is not always the case for the reactant variances and covariances. The plume reactant statistics are closer to the equilibrium limit than those for the ambient reactant. The covariance term in the mean reaction rate is found to be negative and significant for all measurements made. The Toor closure was found to overestimate the mean reaction rate by 15 to 65%. Gradient model turbulent diffusivities had significant scatter and were not observed to be affected by reaction. The ratio of turbulent diffusivities for the conserved scalar mean and that for the r.m.s. was found to be approximately 1. Estimates of the ratio of the dissipation timescales of around 2 were found downstream. Estimates of the correlation coefficient between the conserved scalar and its dissipation (parallel to the mean flow) were found to be between 0.25 and the significant value of 0.5. Scalar dissipations for non-reactive and reactive scalars were found to be significantly different. Conditional statistics are found to be a useful way of investigating the reactive behaviour of the plume, effectively decoupling the interaction of chemical reaction and turbulent mixing. It is found that conditional reactive scalar means lack significant transverse dependence as has previously been found theoretically by Klimenko (1995). It is also found that conditional variance around the conditional reactive scalar means is relatively small, simplifying the closure for the conditional reaction rate. These properties are important for the Conditional Moment Closure (CMC) model for turbulent reacting flows recently proposed by Klimenko (1990) and Bilger (1993). Preliminary CMC model calculations are carried out for this flow using a simple model for the conditional scalar dissipation. Model predictions and measured conditional reactive scalar means compare favorably. The reaction dominated limit is found to indicate the maximum reactedness of a reactive scalar and is a limiting case of the CMC model. Conventional (unconditional) reactive scalar means obtained from the preliminary CMC predictions using the conserved scalar p.d.f. compare favorably with those found from experiment except where measuring position is relatively far upstream of the stoichiometric distance. Recommendations include applying a full CMC model to the flow and investigations both of the less significant terms in the conditional mean species equation and the small variation of the conditional mean with radius. Forms for the p.d.f.s, in addition to those found from experiments, could be useful for extending the CMC model to reactive flows in the atmosphere.
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|Item Type:||Thesis (PhD)|
|Divisions:||Past > QUT Faculties & Divisions > Faculty of Built Environment and Engineering
Past > Schools > School of Engineering Systems
|Institution:||The University of Sydney|
|Deposited On:||06 May 2010 01:15|
|Last Modified:||09 Jun 2010 14:28|
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