Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in seizure disorders
Wellard, Mark & Jackson, Greaeme (2010) Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in seizure disorders. In Gillard, Jonathan H., Waldman, Adam D., & Barker, Peter B. (Eds.) Clinical MR Neuroimaging Physiological and Functional Techniques. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 526-545.
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Key points • The clinical aims of MR spectroscopy (MRS) in seizure disorders are to help identify, localize and characterize epileptogenic foci. • Lateralizing MRS abnormalities in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) may be used clinically in combination with structural and T2 MRI measurements together with other techniques such as EEG, PET and SPECT. • Characteristic metabolite abnormalities are decreased N-acetylaspartate (NAA) with increased choline (Cho) and myoinositol (mI) (short-echo time). • Contralateral metabolite abnormalities are frequently seen in TLE, but are of uncertain significance. • In extra-temporal epilepsy, metabolite abnormalities may be seen where MR imaging (MRI) is normal; but may not be sufficiently localized to be useful clinically. • MRS may help to characterize epileptogenic lesions visible on MRI (aggressive vs. indolent neoplastic, dysplasia). • Spectral editing techniques are required to evaluate specific epilepsy-relevant metabolites (e.g. -aminobutyric acid (GABA)), which may be useful in drug development and evaluation. • MRS with phosphorus (31P) and other nuclei probe metabolism of epilepsy, but are less useful clinically. • There is potential for assessing the of drug mode of action and efficacy through 13C carbon metabolite measurements, while changes in sodium homeostasis resulting from seizure activity may be detected with 23Na MRS.
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