# Fingerprint analysis using wavelet transform with application to compression and feature extraction

Kasaei, S
(1998)
*Fingerprint analysis using wavelet transform with application to compression and feature extraction.*
PhD
thesis,
Queensland University of Technology.

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## Abstract

The main goal of this research is to design an efficient compression al~ gorithm for fingerprint images. The wavelet transform technique is the principal tool used to reduce interpixel redundancies and to obtain a parsimonious representation for these images. A specific fixed decomposition structure is designed to be used by the wavelet packet in order to save on the computation, transmission, and storage costs. This decomposition structure is based on analysis of information packing performance of several decompositions, two-dimensional power spectral density, effect of each frequency band on the reconstructed image, and the human visual sensitivities. This fixed structure is found to provide the "most" suitable representation for fingerprints, according to the chosen criteria. Different compression techniques are used for different subbands, based on their observed statistics. The decision is based on the effect of each subband on the reconstructed image according to the mean square criteria as well as the sensitivities in human vision. To design an efficient quantization algorithm, a precise model for distribution of the wavelet coefficients is developed. The model is based on the generalized Gaussian distribution. A least squares algorithm on a nonlinear function of the distribution model shape parameter is formulated to estimate the model parameters. A noise shaping bit allocation procedure is then used to assign the bit rate among subbands. To obtain high compression ratios, vector quantization is used. In this work, the lattice vector quantization (LVQ) is chosen because of its superior performance over other types of vector quantizers. The structure of a lattice quantizer is determined by its parameters known as truncation level and scaling factor. In lattice-based compression algorithms reported in the literature the lattice structure is commonly predetermined leading to a nonoptimized quantization approach. In this research, a new technique for determining the lattice parameters is proposed. In the lattice structure design, no assumption about the lattice parameters is made and no training and multi-quantizing is required. The design is based on minimizing the quantization distortion by adapting to the statistical characteristics of the source in each subimage. 11 Abstract Abstract Since LVQ is a multidimensional generalization of uniform quantizers, it produces minimum distortion for inputs with uniform distributions. In order to take advantage of the properties of LVQ and its fast implementation, while considering the i.i.d. nonuniform distribution of wavelet coefficients, the piecewise-uniform pyramid LVQ algorithm is proposed. The proposed algorithm quantizes almost all of source vectors without the need to project these on the lattice outermost shell, while it properly maintains a small codebook size. It also resolves the wedge region problem commonly encountered with sharply distributed random sources. These represent some of the drawbacks of the algorithm proposed by Barlaud [26). The proposed algorithm handles all types of lattices, not only the cubic lattices, as opposed to the algorithms developed by Fischer [29) and Jeong [42). Furthermore, no training and multiquantizing (to determine lattice parameters) is required, as opposed to Powell's algorithm [78). For coefficients with high-frequency content, the positive-negative mean algorithm is proposed to improve the resolution of reconstructed images. For coefficients with low-frequency content, a lossless predictive compression scheme is used to preserve the quality of reconstructed images. A method to reduce bit requirements of necessary side information is also introduced. Lossless entropy coding techniques are subsequently used to remove coding redundancy. The algorithms result in high quality reconstructed images with better compression ratios than other available algorithms. To evaluate the proposed algorithms their objective and subjective performance comparisons with other available techniques are presented. The quality of the reconstructed images is important for a reliable identification. Enhancement and feature extraction on the reconstructed images are also investigated in this research. A structural-based feature extraction algorithm is proposed in which the unique properties of fingerprint textures are used to enhance the images and improve the fidelity of their characteristic features. The ridges are extracted from enhanced grey-level foreground areas based on the local ridge dominant directions. The proposed ridge extraction algorithm, properly preserves the natural shape of grey-level ridges as well as precise locations of the features, as opposed to the ridge extraction algorithm in [81). Furthermore, it is fast and operates only on foreground regions, as opposed to the adaptive floating average thresholding process in [68). Spurious features are subsequently eliminated using the proposed post-processing scheme.

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ID Code: | 36053 |
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Item Type: | QUT Thesis (PhD) |

Supervisor: | Deriche, Mohamed, Boashash, Boualem, & Harle, Norbert |

Additional Information: | Presented to the Signal Processing Research Centre, Queensland University of Technology. |

Keywords: | Wavelets (Mathematics), Computer vision, Fourier transforms, Image compression, Fingerprints Data processing, compression, decomposition structure, enhancement, entropy, feature extraction, filter banks, fingerprint image, generalized Gaussian distribution, human visual system, identification, information cost function, Lagrange multiplier, lossless compression, lossy compression, multiresolution analysis, nonstationary signals, power spectral density, pyramid lattice vector quantization, quadrature mirror filter, quantization, segmentation, short-time Fourier transform, subband coding, wavelet packets, thesis, doctoral |

Institution: | Queensland University of Technology |

Copyright Owner: | Copyright S Kasaei |

Deposited On: | 22 Sep 2010 13:04 |

Last Modified: | 09 Dec 2015 01:12 |

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