The mechanism of maturation of insulin-like growth factor-1

Craven, Cyril John (1999) The mechanism of maturation of insulin-like growth factor-1. PhD thesis, Queensland University of Technology.

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Abstract

This study, to elucidate the role of des(1-3)IGF-I in the maturation of IGF-I,used two strategies. The first was to detect the presence of enzymes in tissues, which would act on IGF-I to produce des(1-3)IGF-I, and the second was to detect the potential products of such enzymic activity, namely Gly-Pro-Glu(GPE), Gly-Pro(GP) and des(l- 3)IGF-I. No neutral tripeptidyl peptidase (TPP II), which would release the tripeptide GPE from IGF-I, was detected in brain, urine nor in red or white blood cells. The TPPlike activity which was detected, was attributed to a combined action of a dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP N) and an aminopeptidase (AP A). A true TPP II was, however, detected in platelets. Two purified TPP II enzymes were investigated but they did not release GPE from IGF-I under a variety of conditions. Consequently, TPP II seemed unlikely to participate in the formation of des(1-3)IGF-I. In contrast, an acidic tripeptidyl peptidase activity (TPP I) was detected in brain and colostrum, the former with a pH optimum of 4.5 and the latter 3.8. It seems likely that such an enzyme would participate in the formation of des( 1-3 )IGF-I in these tissues in vitro, ie. that des(1-3)IGF-I may have been produced as an artifact in the isolation of IGF-I from brain and colostrum in acidic conditions. This contrasts with suggestions of an in vivo role for des(1-3)IGF-I, as reported by others. The activity of a dipeptidyl peptidase N (DPP N) from urine, which should release the dipeptide GP from IGF-I, was assessed under a variety of conditions and with a variety of additives and potential enzyme stimulants, but there was no release of GP. The DPP N also exhibited a transferase activity with synthetic substrates in the presence of dipeptides, at lower concentrations than previously reported for other acceptors or other proteolytic enzymes. In addition, a low concentration of a product,possibly the tetrapeptide Gly-Pro-Gly-Leu, was detected with the action of the enzyme on IGF-I in the presence of the dipeptide Gly-Leu. As part of attempts to detect tissue production of des(1-3)IGF-I, a monoclonal antibody (MAb ), directed towards the GPE- end ofiGF-I was produced by immunisation with a 10-mer covalently attached to a carrier protein. By the use of indirect ELISA and inhibitor studies, the MAb was shown to selectively recognise peptides with anNterminal GPE- sequence, and applied to the indirect detection of des(1-3)IGF-I. The concentration of GPE in brain, measured by mass spectrometry ( MS), was low, and the concentration of total IGF-I (measured by ELISA with a commercial polyclonal antibody [P Ab]) was 40 times higher at 50 nmol/kg. This also, was not consistent with the action of a tripeptidyl peptidase in brain that converted all IGF-I to des(1-3)IGF-I plus GPE. Contrasting ELISA results, using the MAb prepared in this study, suggest an even higher concentration of intact IGF-I of 150 nmollkg. This would argue against the presence of any des( 1-3 )IGF-I in brain, but in turn, this indicates either the presence of other substances containing a GPE amino-terminus or other cross reacting epitope. Although the results of the specificity studies reported in Chapter 5 would make this latter possibility seem unlikely, it cannot be completely excluded. No GP was detected in brain by MS. No GPE was detected in colostrum by capillary electrophoresis (CE) but the interference from extraneous substances reduced the detectability of GPE by CE and this approach would require further, prior, purification and concentration steps. A molecule, with a migration time equal to that of the peptide GP, was detected in colostrum by CE, but the concentration (~ 10 11mo/L) was much higher than the IGF-I concentration measured by radio-immunoassay using a PAb (80 nmol/L) or using a Mab (300-400 nmolL). A DPP IV enzyme was detected in colostrum and this could account for the GP, derived from substrates other than IGF-1. Based on the differential results of the two antibody assays, there was no indication of the presence of des(1-3)IGF-I in brain or colostrum. In the absence of any enzyme activity directed towards the amino terminus of IGF-I and the absence any potential products, IGF-I, therefore, does not appear to "mature" via des(1-3)IGF-I in the brain, nor in the neutral colostrum. In spite of these results which indicate the absence of an enzymic attack on IGF-I and the absence of the expected products in tissues, the possibility that the conversion of IGF-I may occur in neutral conditions in limited amounts, cannot be ruled out. It remains possible that in the extracellular environment of the membrane, a complex interaction of IGF-I, binding protein, aminopeptidase(s) and receptor, produces des(1- 3)IGF-I as a transient product which is bound to the receptor and internalised.

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ID Code: 37030
Item Type: QUT Thesis (PhD)
Additional Information: Presented to the Centre for Molecular Biotechnology, School of Life Science, Queensland University of Technology.
Keywords: Somatomedin, Spinal cord Growth, insulin-like growth factor I, Des(1-3) insulin-like growth factor I, tripeptidyl peptidase II, tripeptidyl peptidase I, dipeptidyl peptidase IV, brain, colostrum, Gly-Pro-Glu, Gly-Pro, thesis, doctoral
Institution: Queensland University of Technology
Copyright Owner: Copyright Cyril John Craven
Deposited On: 22 Sep 2010 13:06
Last Modified: 14 Mar 2016 00:56

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