Swept frequency biompedance analysis for the determination of body water compartments

Cornish, Bruce H (1994) Swept frequency biompedance analysis for the determination of body water compartments. PhD thesis, Queensland University of Technology.

Abstract

Bioelectrical impedance analysis, (BIA), is a method of body composition analysis first investigated in 1962 which has recently received much attention by a number of research groups. The reasons for this recent interest are its advantages, (viz: inexpensive, non-invasive and portable) and also the increasing interest in the diagnostic value of body composition analysis. The concept utilised by BIA to predict body water volumes is the proportional relationship for a simple cylindrical conductor, (volume oc length2/resistance), which allows the volume to be predicted from the measured resistance and length. Most of the research to date has measured the body's resistance to the passage of a 50· kHz AC current to predict total body water, (TBW). Several research groups have investigated the application of AC currents at lower frequencies, (eg 5 kHz), to predict extracellular water, (ECW). However all research to date using BIA to predict body water volumes has used the impedance measured at a discrete frequency or frequencies. This thesis investigates the variation of impedance and phase of biological systems over a range of frequencies and describes the development of a swept frequency bioimpedance meter which measures impedance and phase at 496 frequencies ranging from 4 kHz to 1 MHz. The impedance of any biological system varies with the frequency of the applied current. The graph of reactance vs resistance yields a circular arc with the resistance decreasing with increasing frequency and reactance increasing from zero to a maximum then decreasing to zero. Computer programs were written to analyse the measured impedance spectrum and determine the impedance, Zc, at the characteristic frequency, (the frequency at which the reactance is a maximum). The fitted locus of the measured data was extrapolated to determine the resistance, Ro, at zero frequency; a value that cannot be measured directly using surface electrodes. The explanation of the theoretical basis for selecting these impedance values (Zc and Ro), to predict TBW and ECW is presented. Studies were conducted on a group of normal healthy animals, (n=42), in which TBW and ECW were determined by the gold standard of isotope dilution. The prediction quotients L2/Zc and L2/Ro, (L=length), yielded standard errors of 4.2% and 3.2% respectively, and were found to be significantly better than previously reported, empirically determined prediction quotients derived from measurements at a single frequency. The prediction equations established in this group of normal healthy animals were applied to a group of animals with abnormally low fluid levels, (n=20), and also to a group with an abnormal balance of extra-cellular to intracellular fluids, (n=20). In both cases the equations using L2/Zc and L2/Ro accurately and precisely predicted TBW and ECW. This demonstrated that the technique developed using multiple frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis, (MFBIA), can accurately predict both TBW and ECW in both normal and abnormal animals, (with standard errors of the estimate of 6% and 3% for TBW and ECW respectively). Isotope dilution techniques were used to determine TBW and ECW in a group of 60 healthy human subjects, (male. and female, aged between 18 and 45). Whole body impedance measurements were recorded on each subject using the MFBIA technique and the correlations between body water volumes, (TBW and ECW), and heighe/impedance, (for all measured frequencies), were compared. The prediction quotients H2/Zc and H2/Ro, (H=height), again yielded the highest correlation with TBW and ECW respectively with corresponding standard errors of 5.2% and 10%. The values of the correlation coefficients obtained in this study were very similar to those recently reported by others. It was also observed that in healthy human subjects the impedance measured at virtually any frequency yielded correlations not significantly different from those obtained from the MFBIA quotients. This phenomenon has been reported by other research groups and emphasises the need to validate the technique by investigating its application in one or more groups with abnormalities in fluid levels. The clinical application of MFBIA was trialled and its capability of detecting lymphoedema, (an excess of extracellular fluid), was investigated. The MFBIA technique was demonstrated to be significantly more sensitive, (P<.05), in detecting lymphoedema than the current technique of circumferential measurements. MFBIA was also shown to provide valuable information describing the changes in the quantity of muscle mass of the patient during the course of the treatment. The determination of body composition, (viz TBW and ECW), by MFBIA has been shown to be a significant improvement on previous bioelectrical impedance techniques. The merit of the MFBIA technique is evidenced in its accurate, precise and valid application in animal groups with a wide variation in body fluid volumes and balances. The multiple frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis technique developed in this study provides accurate and precise estimates of body composition, (viz TBW and ECW), regardless of the individual's state of health.

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ID Code: 37154
Item Type: QUT Thesis (PhD)
Additional Information: Presented to the School of Physics, Queensland University of Technology.
Keywords: Impedance, Bioelectric, Body composition, thesis, doctoral
Institution: Queensland University of Technology
Copyright Owner: Copyright Bruce H Cornish
Deposited On: 22 Sep 2010 13:07
Last Modified: 30 Mar 2016 00:09

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