The expression of ADAM-9 and -10 in prostate cancer and their regulation by dihydrotestosterone, insulin-like growth Factor-1 and epidermal growth factor
McCulloch, Daniel R. (2003) The expression of ADAM-9 and -10 in prostate cancer and their regulation by dihydrotestosterone, insulin-like growth Factor-1 and epidermal growth factor. PhD thesis, Queensland University of Technology.
Prostrate Cancer(PCa)is the most common cause of cancer death amongst Western males. PCa occurs in two distinct stages. In its early stage, growth and development is dependent primarily on male sex hormones (androgens) such as testosterone, although other growth factors have roles maintaining PCa cell survival in this stage. In the later stage of PCa development, growth and.maintenance is independent of androgen stimulation and growth factors including Insulin-like Growth Factor -1 (IGf.:·l) and Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) are thought to have more crucial roles in cell survival and PCa progression.
PCa, in its late stages, is highly aggressive and metastatic, that is, tumorigenic cells migrate from the primary site of the body (prostate) and travel via the systemic and lymphatic circulation, residing and colonising in the bone, lymph node, lung, and in more rare cases, the brain. Metastasis involves both cell migration and tissue degradation activities. The degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM), the tissue surrounding the organ, is mediated in part by members of a family of 26 proteins called the Matrix Metalloproteases (MMPs), whilst ceil adhesion molecules, of which proteins known as Integrins are included, mediate ce11 migration. A family of proteins known as the ADAMs (A Disintegrin . And Metalloprotease domain) were a recently characterised family at the commencement of this study and now comprise 34 members. Because of their dual nature, possessing an active metaiioprotease domain, homologous to that of the MMPs, and an integrin-binding domain capable of regulating cell-cell and cell-ECM contacts, it was thought likely that members of the ADAMs family may have implications for the progression of aggressive cancers such as those ofthe prostate. This study focussed on two particular ADAMs -9 and -10. ADAM-9 has an active metalloprotease domain, which has been shown to degrade constituents of the ECM, including fibronectin, in vitro. It also has an integrin-binding capacity through association with key integrins involved in PCa progression, such as a6~1. ADAM-10 has no such integrin binding activities, but its bovine orthologue, MADM, is able to degrade coHagen type IV, a major component of basement membranes. It is likely human ADAM-10 has the same activity. It is also known to cleave Ll -a protein involved in cell anchorage activities - and collagen type XVII - which is a principal component of the hemidesmosomes of cellular tight junctions. The cleavage of these proteins enables the cell to be released from the surrounding environment and commence migratory activities, as required in metastasis.
Previous studies in this laboratory showed the mRNA expression of the five ADAMs -9,- 10, -11, -15 and -17 in PCa cell lines, characteristic of androgen-dependent and androgen independent disease. These studies were furthered by the characterisation of AD AM-9, -10 and -17 mRNA regulation by Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in the androgen-responsive cell line (LNCaP). ADAM-9 and -10 mRNA levels were elevated in response to DHT stimulation. Further to these observations, the expression of ADAM-9 and -10 was shown in primary prostate biopsies from patients with PCa. ADAM-1 0 was expressed in the cytoplasm and on the ceH membrane in epithelial and basal cells ofbenign prostate glands, but in high-grade PCa glands, ADAM-I 0 expression was localised to the nucleus and its expression levels appeared to be elevated when compared to low-grade PCa glands. These studies provided a strong background for the hypothesis that ADAM-9 and -10 have key roles in the development ofPCa and provided a basis for further studies.The aims of this study were to: 1) characterise the expression, localisation and levels, of ADAM-9 and -10 mRNA and protein in cell models representing characteristics of normal through androgen-dependent to androgen-independent PCa, as well as to expand the primary PCa biopsy data for ADAM-9 and ADAM-10 to encompass PCa bone metastases 2) establish an in vitro cell system, which could express elevated levels of ADAM-1 0 so that functional cell-based assays such as cell migration, invasion and attachment could be carried out, and 3) to extend the previous hormonal regulation data, to fully characterise the response of ADAM-9 and -10 mRNA and protein levels to DHT, IGF-1, DHT plus IGF-1 and EGF in the hormonal/growth factor responsive cell line LNCaP. For aim 1 (expression of ADAM-9 and -10 mRNA and protein), ADAM-9 and -10 mRNA were characterised by R T -PCR, while their protein products were analysed by Western blot. Both ADAM-9 and -10 mRNA and protein were expressed at readily detectable levels across progressively metastatic PCa cell lines model that represent characteristics of low-grade,. androgen-dependent (LNCaP and C4) to high-grade, androgen-independent (C4-2 and C4-2B) PCa. When the non-tumorigenic prostate cell line RWPE-1 was compared with the metastatic PCa cell line PC-3, differential expression patterns were seen by Western blot analysis. For ADAM-9, the active form was expressed at higher levels in RWPE-1, whilst subcellular fractionation showed that the active form of ADAM-9 was predominantly located in the cell nucleus. For ADAM-I 0, in both of the cell Jines, a nuclear specific isoform of the mature, catalytically active ADAM-I 0 was found. This isoforrn differed by -2 kDa in Mr (smaller) than the cytoplasmic specific isoform. Unprocessed ADAM-I 0 was readily detected in R WPE-1 cell lines but only occasionally detected in PC-3 cell lines. Immunocytochemistry using ADAM-9 and -10 specific antibodies confirmed nuclear, cytoplasmic and membrane expression of both ADAMs in these two cell lines. To examine the possibility of ADAM-9 and -10 being shed into the extracellular environment, membrane vesicles that are constitutively shed from the cell surface and contain membrane-associated proteins were collected from the media of the prostate cell lines RWPE-1, LNCaP and PC-3. ADAM-9 was readily detectable in RWPE- 1 and LNCaP cell membrane vesicles by Western blot analysis, but not in PC-3 cells, whilst the expression of ADAM-I 0 was detected in shed vesicles from each of these prostate cell lines. By Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM), secretory epithelial cells of primary prostate gland biopsies were isolated from benign and malignant glands. These secretory cells, by Western blot analysis, expressed similar Mr bands for ADAM-9 and -10 that were found in PCa cell lines in vitro, indicating that the nuclear specific isoforrn of ADAM-I 0 was present in PCa primary tumours and may represent the predominantly nuclear form of ADAM-I 0 expression, previously shown in high-grade PCa by immunohistochemistry (IHC). ADAM-9 and -10 were also examined by IHC in bone metastases taken from PCa patients at biopsy. Both ADAMs could be detected at levels similar to those shown for Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) in these biopsies. Furthermore, both ADAM-9 and -10 were predominantly membrane- bound with occasional nuclear expression.
For aim 2, to establish a cell system that over-expressed levels of ADAM-10, two fulllength ADAM-I 0 mammalian expression vectors were constructed; ADAM-I 0 was cloned into pcDNA3.1, which contains a CMV promoter, and into pMEP4, containing an inducible metallothionine promoter, whose activity is stimulated by the addition of CdC}z. The efficiency of these two constructs was tested by way of transient transfection in the PCa cell line PC-3, whilst the pcDNA3.1 construct was also tested in the RWPE-1 prostate cell line. Resultant Western blot analysis for all transient transfection assays showed that levels of ADAM-I 0 were not significantly elevated in any case, when compared to levels of the housekeeping gene ~-Tubulin, despite testing various levels of vector DNA, and, for pMEP4, the induction of the transfected cell system with different degrees of stimulation with CdCh to activate the metallothionine promoter post-transfection. Another study in this laboratory found similar results when the same full length ADAM-10 sequence was cloned into a Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) expressing vector, as no fluorescence was observed by means of transient tran sfection in the same, and other, PCa cell lines. It was hypothesised that the Kozak sequence included in the full-length construct (human ADAMI 0 naturally occurring sequence) is not strong enough to initiate translation in an artificial system, in cells, which, as described in Aim 1, are already expressing readily detectable levels of endogenous ADAM-10. As a result, time constraints prevented any further progress with Aim 2 and functional studies including cell attachment, invasion and migration were unable to be explored.
For Aim 3, to characterise the response of ADAM-9 and -10 mRNA and protein levels to DHT, IGF-1, DHT plus IGF-1 and EGF in LNCaP cells, the levels of ADAM-9 and -10 mRNA were not stimulated by DHT or IGF-I alone, despite our previous observations that initially characterised ADAM-9 and -10 mRNA as being responsive to DHT. However, IGF-1 in synergy with DHT did significantly elevate mRNA levels ofboth ADAMs. In the case of ADAM-9 and -10 protein, the same trends of stimulation as found at the rnRNA level were shown by Western blot analysis when ADAM-9 and -10 signal intensity was normalised with the housekeeping protein ~-Tubulin. For EGF treatment, both ADAM-9 and -10 mRNA and protein levels were significantly elevated, and further investigation vm found this to be the case for each of these ADAMs proteins in the nuclear fractions of LNCaP cells.
These studies are the first to describe extensively, the expression and hormonal/growth factor regulation of two members of the ADAMs family ( -9 and -1 0) in PCa. These observations imply that the expression of ADAM-9 and -10 have varied roles in PCa whilst it develops from androgen-sensitive (early stage disease), through to an androgeninsensitive (late-stage), metastatic disease. Further studies are now required to investigate the several key areas of focus that this research has revealed, including: • Investigation of the cellular mechanisms that are involved in actively transporting the ADAMs to the cell's nuclear compartment and the ADAMs functional roles in the cell nucleus.
• The construction of a full-length human ADAM-10 mammalian expression construct with the introduction of a new Kozak sequence, that elevates ADAM-I 0 expression in an in vitro cell system are required, so that functional assays such as cell invasion, migration and attachment may be carried out to fmd the functional consequences of ADAM expression on cellular behaviour.
• The regulation studies also need to be extended by confirming the preliminary observations that the nuclear levels of ADAMs may also be elevated by hormones and growth factors such as DHT, IGF-1 and EGF, as well as the regulation of levels of plasma membrany vesicle associated ADAM expression.
Given the data presented in this study, it is likely the ADAMs have differential roles throughout the development of PCa due to their differential cellular localisation and synergistic growth-factor regulation. These observations, along with those further studies outlined above, are necessary in identifying these specific components ofPCa metastasis to which the ADAMs may contribute.
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|Item Type:||QUT Thesis (PhD)|
|Supervisor:||Herington, Adrian & Odorico, Dimitri|
|Additional Information:||Presented to the School of Life Sciences, Queensland University of Technology.|
|Keywords:||Prostate Cancer, Cancer Pathophysiology, Growth factors Pathophysiology, A disintegrin and metalloprotease domain (ADAM), prostrate cancer, metastasis, matrix metalloprotease, integrin, dihydrotestosterone, insulin-like growth factor-1, epidermal growth factor, extracellular matrix, androgen, thesis, doctoral|
|Institution:||Queensland University of Technology|
|Copyright Owner:||Copyright Daniel R McCulloch|
|Deposited On:||22 Sep 2010 13:07|
|Last Modified:||17 Mar 2016 05:39|
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