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Modulation of dermal microvascular endithelial cell responses to growth factors and haemostatic factors in the presence of vitronectin

Gillies, Peter John (2008) Modulation of dermal microvascular endithelial cell responses to growth factors and haemostatic factors in the presence of vitronectin. Masters by Research thesis, Queensland University of Technology.

Abstract

In order to effect permanent closure in burns patients suffering from full thickness wounds, replacing their skin via split thickness autografting, is essential. Dermal substitutes in conjunction with widely meshed split thickness autografts (+/- cultured keratinocytes) reduce scarring at the donor and recipient sites of burns patients by reducing demand for autologous skin (both surface area and thickness), without compromising dermal delivery at the wound face. Tissue engineered products such as Integra consist of a dermal template which is rapidly remodelled to form a neodermis, at which time the temporary silicone outer layer is removed and replaced with autologous split thickness skin. Whilst provision of a thick tissue engineered dermis at full thickness burn sites reduces scarring, it is hampered by delays in vascularisation which results in clinical failure. The ultimate success of any skin graft product is dependent upon a number of basic factors including adherence, haemostasis and in the case of viable tissue grafts, success is ultimately dependent upon restoration of a normal blood supply, and hence this study. Ultimately, the goal of this research is to improve the therapeutic properties of tissue replacements, through impregnation with growth factors aimed at stimulating migration and proliferation of microvascular endothelial cells into the donor tissue post grafting. For the purpose of my masters, the aim was to evaluate the responsiveness of a dermal microvascular endothelial cell line to growth factors and haemostatic factors, in the presence of the glycoprotein vitronectin. Vitronectin formed the backbone for my hypothesis and research due to its association with both epithelial and, more specifically, endothelial migration and proliferation. Early work using a platform technology referred to as VitroGro (Tissue Therapies Ltd), which is comprised of vitronectin bound BP5/IGF-1, aided keratinocyte proliferation. I hypothesised that this result would translate to another epithelium - endothelium. VitroGro had no effect on endothelial proliferation or migration. Vitronectin increases the presence of Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) receptors, enhancing cell responsiveness to their respective ligands. So, although Human Microvascular Endothelial Cell line 1 (HMEC-1) VEGF receptor expression is generally low, it was hypothesised that exposure to vitronectin would up-regulate this receptor. HMEC-1 migration, but not proliferation, was enhanced by vitronectin bound VEGF, as well as vitronectin bound Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), both of which could be used to stimulate microvascular endothelial cell migration for the purpose of transplantation. In addition to vitronectin's synergy with various growth factors, it has also been shown to play a role in haemostasis. Vitronectin binds thrombin-antithrombin III (TAT) to form a trimeric complex that takes on many of the attributes of vitronectin, such as heparin affinity, which results in its adherence to endothelium via heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSP), followed by unaltered transcytosis through the endothelium, and ultimately its removal from the circulation. This has been documented as a mechanism designed to remove thrombin from the circulation. Equally, it could be argued that it is a mechanism for delivering vitronectin to the matrix. My results show that matrix-bound vitronectin dramatically alters the effect that conformationally altered antithrombin three (cATIII) has on proliferation of microvascular endothelial cells. cATIII stimulates HMEC-1 proliferation in the presence of matrix-bound vitronectin, as opposed to inhibiting proliferation in its absence. Binding vitronectin to tissues and organs prior to transplant, in the presence of cATIII, will have a profound effect on microvascular infiltration of the graft, by preventing occlusion of existing vessels whilst stimulating migration and proliferation of endothelium within the tissue.

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ID Code: 37176
Item Type: QUT Thesis (Masters by Research)
Supervisor: Harkin, Harkin
Additional Information: Thesis embargoed until 29 November 2013.
Keywords: Growth factors, Skin grafting, Burns and scalds Treatment, Vitronectin, burns, skin grafting, angiogenesis, dermal microvascular endithelial cells, HMEC-1, growth factors, insulin-like growth factors, insulin-like growth factor binding proteins, epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, placenta growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, vitronectin, thrombin, antithrombin III, cell proliferation, cell migration, thesis, masters
Divisions: Past > QUT Faculties & Divisions > Faculty of Science and Technology
Past > Schools > School of Life Sciences
Institution: Queensland University of Technology
Deposited On: 22 Sep 2010 23:07
Last Modified: 05 Mar 2014 15:42

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