In vivo knockdown of the androgen receptor results in growth inhibition and regression of well-established, castration-resistant prostate tumours
Snoek, Robert, Cheng, Helen, Margiotti, Katia, Wafa, Latif, Wong, Charmaine, Chan Wong, Erica, Fazli, Ladan, Nelson, Colleen, Gleave, Martin, & Rennie, Paul (2009) In vivo knockdown of the androgen receptor results in growth inhibition and regression of well-established, castration-resistant prostate tumours. Clinical Cancer Research, 15(1), pp. 39-47.
Purpose: Progression to the castration-resistant state is the incurable and lethal end stage of prostate cancer, and there is strong evidence that androgen receptor (AR) still plays a central role in this process. We hypothesize that knocking down AR will have a major effect on inhibiting growth of castration-resistant tumors.
Experimental Design: Castration-resistant C4-2 human prostate cancer cells stably expressing a tetracycline-inducible AR-targeted short hairpin RNA (shRNA) were generated to directly test the effects of AR knockdown in C4-2 human prostate cancer cells and tumors.
Results:In vitro expression of AR shRNA resulted in decreased levels of AR mRNA and protein, decreased expression of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), reduced activation of the PSA-luciferase reporter, and growth inhibition of C4-2 cells. Gene microarray analyses revealed that AR knockdown under hormone-deprived conditions resulted in activation of genes involved in apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, protein synthesis, and tumorigenesis. To ensure that tumors were truly castration-resistant in vivo, inducible AR shRNA expressing C4-2 tumors were grown in castrated mice to an average volume of 450 mm3. In all of the animals, serum PSA decreased, and in 50% of them, there was complete tumor regression and disappearance of serum PSA.
Conclusions: Whereas castration is ineffective in castration-resistant prostate tumors, knockdown of AR can decrease serum PSA, inhibit tumor growth, and frequently cause tumor regression. This study is the first direct evidence that knockdown of AR is a viable therapeutic strategy for treatment of prostate tumors that have already progressed to the castration-resistant state.
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|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Keywords:||Androgen Independance, Castration-Resistant, Androgen Receptor, shRNA, Tumor Progression|
|Subjects:||Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES (060000) > BIOCHEMISTRY AND CELL BIOLOGY (060100) > Cell Development Proliferation and Death (060103)|
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000) > ONCOLOGY AND CARCINOGENESIS (111200)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000) > ONCOLOGY AND CARCINOGENESIS (111200) > Cancer Cell Biology (111201)
|Divisions:||Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health|
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
|Deposited On:||30 Sep 2010 11:23|
|Last Modified:||01 Mar 2012 00:01|
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