Socioeconomic inequality profiles in physical and developmental health from 0-7 years : Australian National Study

Nicholson, Jan, Lucas, Nina, Berthelsen, Donna C., & Wake, Melissa (2010) Socioeconomic inequality profiles in physical and developmental health from 0-7 years : Australian National Study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health.

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Background: Early and persistent exposure to socioeconomic disadvantage impairs children’s health and wellbeing. However, it is unclear at what age health inequalities emerge or whether these relationships vary across ages and outcomes. We address these issues using cross-sectional Australian population data on the physical and developmental health of children at ages 0-1, 2-3, 4-5 and 6-7 years.

Methods: 10 physical and developmental health outcomes were assessed in 2004 and 2006 for two cohorts each comprising around 5000 children. Socioeconomic position was measured as a composite of parental education, occupation and household income.

Results: Lower socioeconomic position was associated with increased odds for poor outcomes. For physical health outcomes and socio-emotional competence, associations were similar across age groups and were consistent with either threshold effects (for poor general health, special healthcare needs and socio-emotional competence) or gradient effects (for illness with wheeze, sleep problems and injury). For socio-emotional difficulties, communication, vocabulary and emergent literacy, stronger socioeconomic associations were observed. The patterns were linear or accelerated and varied across ages.

Conclusions: From very early childhood, social disadvantage was associated with poorer outcomes across most measures of physical and developmental health and showed no evidence of either strengthening or attenuating at older compared to younger ages. Findings confirm the importance of early childhood as a key focus for health promotion and prevention efforts.

Impact and interest:

22 citations in Scopus
19 citations in Web of Science®
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ID Code: 38393
Item Type: Journal Article
Refereed: Yes
Keywords: socio-economic status, child development, health inequalities, early childhood, LSAC
DOI: 10.1136/jech.2009.103291
ISSN: 0143-005X
Subjects: Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > PSYCHOLOGY AND COGNITIVE SCIENCES (170000) > PSYCHOLOGY (170100) > Developmental Psychology and Ageing (170102)
Divisions: Current > Research Centres > Office of Education Research
Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Education
Current > Schools > School of Early Childhood & Inclusive Education
Copyright Owner: Copyright 2010 The Authors
Deposited On: 08 Nov 2010 22:13
Last Modified: 02 Feb 2015 02:31

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