Ontology-based image annotation

Yuee, Liu (2010) Ontology-based image annotation. PhD thesis, Queensland University of Technology.

Abstract

With regard to the long-standing problem of the semantic gap between low-level image features and high-level human knowledge, the image retrieval community has recently shifted its emphasis from low-level features analysis to high-level image semantics extrac- tion. User studies reveal that users tend to seek information using high-level semantics. Therefore, image semantics extraction is of great importance to content-based image retrieval because it allows the users to freely express what images they want. Semantic content annotation is the basis for semantic content retrieval. The aim of image anno- tation is to automatically obtain keywords that can be used to represent the content of images. The major research challenges in image semantic annotation are: what is the basic unit of semantic representation? how can the semantic unit be linked to high-level image knowledge? how can the contextual information be stored and utilized for image annotation? In this thesis, the Semantic Web technology (i.e. ontology) is introduced to the image semantic annotation problem. Semantic Web, the next generation web, aims at mak- ing the content of whatever type of media not only understandable to humans but also to machines. Due to the large amounts of multimedia data prevalent on the Web, re- searchers and industries are beginning to pay more attention to the Multimedia Semantic Web. The Semantic Web technology provides a new opportunity for multimedia-based applications, but the research in this area is still in its infancy. Whether ontology can be used to improve image annotation and how to best use ontology in semantic repre- sentation and extraction is still a worth-while investigation. This thesis deals with the problem of image semantic annotation using ontology and machine learning techniques in four phases as below. 1) Salient object extraction. A salient object servers as the basic unit in image semantic extraction as it captures the common visual property of the objects. Image segmen- tation is often used as the �rst step for detecting salient objects, but most segmenta- tion algorithms often fail to generate meaningful regions due to over-segmentation and under-segmentation. We develop a new salient object detection algorithm by combining multiple homogeneity criteria in a region merging framework. 2) Ontology construction. Since real-world objects tend to exist in a context within their environment, contextual information has been increasingly used for improving object recognition. In the ontology construction phase, visual-contextual ontologies are built from a large set of fully segmented and annotated images. The ontologies are composed of several types of concepts (i.e. mid-level and high-level concepts), and domain contextual knowledge. The visual-contextual ontologies stand as a user-friendly interface between low-level features and high-level concepts. 3) Image objects annotation. In this phase, each object is labelled with a mid-level concept in ontologies. First, a set of candidate labels are obtained by training Support Vectors Machines with features extracted from salient objects. After that, contextual knowledge contained in ontologies is used to obtain the �nal labels by removing the ambiguity concepts. 4) Scene semantic annotation. The scene semantic extraction phase is to get the scene type by using both mid-level concepts and domain contextual knowledge in ontologies. Domain contextual knowledge is used to create scene con�guration that describes which objects co-exist with which scene type more frequently. The scene con�guration is represented in a probabilistic graph model, and probabilistic inference is employed to calculate the scene type given an annotated image. To evaluate the proposed methods, a series of experiments have been conducted in a large set of fully annotated outdoor scene images. These include a subset of the Corel database, a subset of the LabelMe dataset, the evaluation dataset of localized semantics in images, the spatial context evaluation dataset, and the segmented and annotated IAPR TC-12 benchmark.

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ID Code: 39611
Item Type: QUT Thesis (PhD)
Supervisor: Zhang, Jinglan, Geva, Shlomo, & Tjondronegoro, Dian
Keywords: ontology, semantic extraction, image annotation, image segmentation, salient object, machine learning, content-based image retrieval
Divisions: Past > QUT Faculties & Divisions > Faculty of Science and Technology
Institution: Queensland University of Technology
Deposited On: 21 Jan 2011 02:10
Last Modified: 22 Jun 2017 14:43

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