# Computed success rates of various carrier phase integer estimation solutions and their comparison with statistical success rates

Feng, Yanming & Wang, Jun
(2011)
Computed success rates of various carrier phase integer estimation solutions and their comparison with statistical success rates.
*Journal of Geodesy*, *85*(2), pp. 93-103.

## Abstract

The success rate of carrier phase ambiguity resolution (AR) is the probability that the ambiguities are successfully fixed to their correct integer values. In existing works, an exact success rate formula for integer bootstrapping estimator has been used as a sharp lower bound for the integer least squares (ILS) success rate. Rigorous computation of success rate for the more general ILS solutions has been considered difficult, because of complexity of the ILS ambiguity pull-in region and computational load of the integration of the multivariate probability density function. Contributions of this work are twofold. First, the pull-in region mathematically expressed as the vertices of a polyhedron is represented by a multi-dimensional grid, at which the cumulative probability can be integrated with the multivariate normal cumulative density function (mvncdf) available in Matlab. The bivariate case is studied where the pull-region is usually defined as a hexagon and the probability is easily obtained using mvncdf at all the grid points within the convex polygon. Second, the paper compares the computed integer rounding and integer bootstrapping success rates, lower and upper bounds of the ILS success rates to the actual ILS AR success rates obtained from a 24 h GPS data set for a 21 km baseline. The results demonstrate that the upper bound probability of the ILS AR probability given in the existing literatures agrees with the actual ILS success rate well, although the success rate computed with integer bootstrapping method is a quite sharp approximation to the actual ILS success rate. The results also show that variations or uncertainty of the unit–weight variance estimates from epoch to epoch will affect the computed success rates from different methods significantly, thus deserving more attentions in order to obtain useful success probability predictions.

Impact and interest:

**Citation counts** are sourced monthly from **Scopus** and **Web of Science®** citation databases.

These databases contain citations from different subsets of available publications and different time periods and thus the citation count from each is usually different. Some works are not in either database and no count is displayed. Scopus includes citations from articles published in 1996 onwards, and Web of Science® generally from 1980 onwards.

Citations counts from the **Google Scholar™** indexing service can be viewed at the linked Google Scholar™ search.

ID Code: | 40659 |
---|---|

Item Type: | Journal Article |

Refereed: | Yes |

Keywords: | GNSS, Success Rate, Integer Least Squares |

DOI: | 10.1007/s00190-010-0418-y |

ISSN: | 1432-1394 |

Subjects: | Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > ENGINEERING (090000) > GEOMATIC ENGINEERING (090900) > Geodesy (090902) |

Divisions: | Past > QUT Faculties & Divisions > Faculty of Science and Technology |

Copyright Owner: | Copyright 2011 Springer |

Deposited On: | 13 Mar 2011 23:04 |

Last Modified: | 29 Feb 2012 14:24 |

Export: EndNote | Dublin Core | BibTeX

Repository Staff Only: item control page