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Mesoporous bioglass/silk composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

Wu , Chengtie & Xiao, Yin (2011) Mesoporous bioglass/silk composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. In Pignatello, Rosario (Ed.) Biomaterial (Book 2). INTECH Open Access Publisher, Croatia, pp. 269-286.

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    Abstract

    In the past 20 years, mesoporous materials have been attracted great attention due to their significant feature of large surface area, ordered mesoporous structure, tunable pore size and volume, and well-defined surface property. They have many potential applications, such as catalysis, adsorption/separation, biomedicine, etc. [1]. Recently, the studies of the applications of mesoporous materials have been expanded into the field of biomaterials science. A new class of bioactive glass, referred to as mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG), was first developed in 2004. This material has a highly ordered mesopore channel structure with a pore size ranging from 5–20 nm [1]. Compared to non-mesopore bioactive glass (BG), MBG possesses a more optimal surface area, pore volume and improved in vitro apatite mineralization in simulated body fluids [1,2]. Vallet-Regí et al. has systematically investigated the in vitro apatite formation of different types of mesoporous materials, and they demonstrated that an apatite-like layer can be formed on the surfaces of Mobil Composition of Matters (MCM)-48, hexagonal mesoporous silica (SBA-15), phosphorous-doped MCM-41, bioglass-containing MCM-41 and ordered mesoporous MBG, allowing their use in biomedical engineering for tissue regeneration [2-4]. Chang et al. has found that MBG particles can be used for a bioactive drug-delivery system [5,6]. Our study has shown that MBG powders, when incorporated into a poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) film, significantly enhance the apatite-mineralization ability and cell response of PLGA films. compared to BG [7]. These studies suggest that MBG is a very promising bioactive material with respect to bone regeneration. It is known that for bone defect repair, tissue engineering represents an optional method by creating three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds which will have more advantages than powders or granules as 3D scaffolds will provide an interconnected macroporous network to allow cell migration, nutrient delivery, bone ingrowth, and eventually vascularization [8]. For this reason, we try to apply MBG for bone tissue engineering by developing MBG scaffolds. However, one of the main disadvantages of MBG scaffolds is their low mechanical strength and high brittleness; the other issue is that they have very quick degradation, which leads to an unstable surface for bone cell growth limiting their applications. Silk fibroin, as a new family of native biomaterials, has been widely studied for bone and cartilage repair applications in the form of pure silk or its composite scaffolds [9-14]. Compared to traditional synthetic polymer materials, such as PLGA and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV), the chief advantage of silk fibroin is its water-soluble nature, which eliminates the need for organic solvents, that tend to be highly cytotoxic in the process of scaffold preparation [15]. Other advantages of silk scaffolds are their excellent mechanical properties, controllable biodegradability and cytocompatibility [15-17]. However, for the purposes of bone tissue engineering, the osteoconductivity of pure silk scaffolds is suboptimal. It is expected that combining MBG with silk to produce MBG/silk composite scaffolds would greatly improve their physiochemical and osteogenic properties for bone tissue engineering application. Therefore, in this chapter, we will introduce the research development of MBG/silk scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

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    ID Code: 41113
    Item Type: Book Chapter
    Keywords: Biomaterials, Bone, Cartilage, Tissue engineering, Regenerative Medicine
    ISBN: 9789533081182
    Subjects: Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > ENGINEERING (090000) > BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING (090300) > Biomaterials (090301)
    Divisions: Past > QUT Faculties & Divisions > Faculty of Built Environment and Engineering
    Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
    Past > Schools > School of Engineering Systems
    Copyright Owner: Copyright 2011 INTECH Open Access Publisher
    Deposited On: 06 Apr 2011 08:22
    Last Modified: 31 Oct 2011 10:09

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