The biological application of cobalt
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This review collects and summarises the biological applications of the element cobalt. Small amounts of the ferromagnetic metal can be found in rock, soil, plants and animals, but is mainly obtained as a by-product of nickel and copper mining, and is separated from the ores (mainly cobaltite, erythrite, glaucodot and skutterudite) using a variety of methods. Compounds of cobalt include several oxides, including: green cobalt(II) (CoO), blue cobalt(II,III) (Co3O4), and black cobalt(III) (Co2O3); four halides including pink cobalt(II) fluoride (CoF2), blue cobalt(II) chloride (CoCl2), green cobalt(II) bromide (CoBr2), and blue-black cobalt(II) iodide (CoI2). The main application of cobalt is in its metal form in cobalt-based super alloys, though other uses include lithium cobalt oxide batteries, chemical reaction catalyst, pigments and colouring, and radioisotopes in medicine. It is known to mimic hypoxia on the cellular level by stabilizing the α subunit of hypoxia inducing factor (HIF), when chemically applied as cobalt chloride (CoCl2). This is seen in many biological research applications, where it has shown to promote angiogenesis, erythropoiesis and anaerobic metabolism through the transcriptional activation of genes such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and erythropoietin (EPO), contributing significantly to the pathophysiology of major categories of disease, such as myocardial, renal and cerebral ischaemia, high altitude related maladies and bone defects. As a necessary constituent for the formation of vitamin B12, it is essential to all animals, including humans, however excessive exposure can lead to tissue and cellular toxicity. Cobalt has been shown to provide promising potential in clinical applications, however further studies are necessary to clarify its role in hypoxia-responsive genes and the applications of cobalt-chloride treated tissues.
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|Item Type:||Book Chapter|
|Keywords:||Cobalt, Bone, Hypoxia, Regeneration, Vascularization|
|Subjects:||Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > ENGINEERING (090000) > BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING (090300)|
|Divisions:||Past > QUT Faculties & Divisions > Faculty of Built Environment and Engineering|
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
Past > Schools > School of Engineering Systems
|Copyright Owner:||Copyright 2011 Nova Publishers|
|Deposited On:||06 Apr 2011 08:31|
|Last Modified:||19 Aug 2012 08:28|
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