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In situ preparation and protein delivery of silicate/alginate composite microspheres with core-shell structure

Wu , Chengtie, Fan, Wei, Gelinsky, Michael , Xiao, Yin, Chang, Jiang , Friis, Thor, & Cuniberti, Gianaurelio (2011) In situ preparation and protein delivery of silicate/alginate composite microspheres with core-shell structure. Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 8(65), 1804-1814 .

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    Abstract

    It is predicted that with increased life expectancy in the developed world, there will be a greater demand for synthetic materials to repair or regenerate lost, injured or diseased bone (Hench & Thompson 2010). There are still few synthetic materials having true bone inductivity, which limits their application for bone regeneration, especially in large-size bone defects. To solve this problem, growth factors, such as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), have been incorporated into synthetic materials in order to stimulate de novo bone formation in the center of large-size bone defects. The greatest obstacle with this approach is that the rapid diffusion of the protein from the carrier material, leading to a precipitous loss of bioactivity; the result is often insufficient local induction or failure of bone regeneration (Wei et al. 2007). It is critical that the protein is loaded in the carrier material in conditions which maintains its bioactivity (van de Manakker et al. 2009). For this reason, the efficient loading and controlled release of a protein from a synthetic material has remained a significant challenge. The use of microspheres as protein/drug carriers has received considerable attention in recent years (Lee et al. 2010; Pareta & Edirisinghe 2006; Wu & Zreiqat 2010). Compared to macroporous block scaffolds, the chief advantage of microspheres is their superior protein-delivery properties and ability to fill bone defects with irregular and complex shapes and sizes. Upon implantation, the microspheres are easily conformed to the irregular implant site, and the interstices between the particles provide space for both tissue and vascular ingrowth, which are important for effective and functional bone regeneration (Hsu et al. 1999). Alginates are natural polysaccharides and their production does not have the implicit risk of contamination with allo or xeno-proteins or viruses (Xie et al. 2010). Because alginate is generally cytocompatible, it has been used extensively in medicine, including cell therapy and tissue engineering applications (Tampieri et al. 2005; Xie et al. 2010; Xu et al. 2007). Calcium cross-linked alginate hydrogel is considered a promising material as a delivery matrix for drugs and proteins, since its gel microspheres form readily in aqueous solutions at room temperature, eliminating the need for harsh organic solvents, thereby maintaining the bioactivity of proteins in the process of loading into the microspheres (Jay & Saltzman 2009; Kikuchi et al. 1999). In addition, calcium cross-linked alginate hydrogel is degradable under physiological conditions (Kibat PG et al. 1990; Park K et al. 1993), which makes alginate stand out as an attractive candidate material for the protein carrier and bone regeneration (Hosoya et al. 2004; Matsuno et al. 2008; Turco et al. 2009). However, the major disadvantages of alginate microspheres is their low loading efficiency and also rapid release of proteins due to the mesh-like networks of the gel (Halder et al. 2005). Previous studies have shown that a core-shell structure in drug/protein carriers can overcome the issues of limited loading efficiencies and rapid release of drug or protein (Chang et al. 2010; Molvinger et al. 2004; Soppimath et al. 2007). We therefore hypothesized that introducing a core-shell structure into the alginate microspheres could solve the shortcomings of the pure alginate. Calcium silicate (CS) has been tested as a biodegradable biomaterial for bone tissue regeneration. CS is capable of inducing bone-like apatite formation in simulated body fluid (SBF) and its apatite-formation rate in SBF is faster than that of Bioglass® and A-W glass-ceramics (De Aza et al. 2000; Siriphannon et al. 2002). Titanium alloys plasma-spray coated with CS have excellent in vivo bioactivity (Xue et al. 2005) and porous CS scaffolds have enhanced in vivo bone formation ability compared to porous β-tricalcium phosphate ceramics (Xu et al. 2008). In light of the many advantages of this material, we decided to prepare CS/alginate composite microspheres by combining a CS shell with an alginate core to improve their protein delivery and mineralization for potential protein delivery and bone repair applications

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    ID Code: 41543
    Item Type: Journal Article
    Keywords: Core-shell structure, Calcium silicate, Alginate, Protein delivery, Bioactivity, Microspheres
    DOI: 10.1098/rsif.2011.0201
    ISSN: 1742-5662
    Subjects: Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > ENGINEERING (090000) > BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING (090300) > Biomaterials (090301)
    Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000) > MEDICAL BIOCHEMISTRY AND METABOLOMICS (110100)
    Divisions: Past > QUT Faculties & Divisions > Faculty of Built Environment and Engineering
    Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
    Past > Schools > School of Engineering Systems
    Copyright Owner: Copyright © The Royal Society 2011
    Deposited On: 04 May 2011 08:40
    Last Modified: 15 Nov 2011 17:31

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