The molecular mechanisms utilised by mesenchymal stem cells in migration to acute myocardial infarction
Kollar, Katarina (2010) The molecular mechanisms utilised by mesenchymal stem cells in migration to acute myocardial infarction. PhD thesis, Queensland University of Technology.
Heart damage caused by acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a leading cause of death and disability in Australia. Novel therapies are still required for the treatment of this condition due to the poor reparative ability of the heart. As such, cellular therapies that assist in the recovery of heart muscle are of great current interest. Culture expanded mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) represent a stem and progenitor cell population that has been shown to promote tissue recovery in pre-clinical studies of AMI. For MSC-based therapies in the clinic, an intravenous route of administration would ideally be used due to the low cost, ease of delivery and relative safety. The study of MSC migration is therefore clinically relevant for a minimally invasive cell therapy to promote regeneration of damaged tissue. C57BL/6, UBI-GFP-BL/6 and CD44-/-/GFP+/+ mice were utilised to investigate mMSC migration. To assist in murine models of MSC migration, a novel method was used for the isolation of murine MSC (mMSC). These mMSC were then expanded in culture and putative mMSC were positive for Sca-1, CD90.2, and CD44 and were negative for CD45 and CD11b. Furthermore, mMSC from C57BL/6 and UBI-GFP-BL/6 mice were shown to differentiate into cells of the mesodermal lineage. Cells from CD44-/-/GFP+/+ mice were positive for Sca-1 and CD90.2, and negative for CD44, CD45 and CD11b however, these cells were unable to differentiate into adipocytes and chondrocytes and express lineage specific genes, PLIN and ACAN. Analysis of mMSC chemokine receptor (CR) expression showed that although mMSC do express chemokine receptors, (including those specific for chemokines released after AMI), these were low or undetectable by mRNA. However, protein expression could be detected, which was predominantly cytoplasmic. It was further shown that in both healthy (unperturbed) and inflamed tissues, mMSC had very little specific migration and engraftment after intravenous injection. To determine if poor mMSC migration was due to the inability of mMSC to respond to chemotactic stimuli, chemokine expression in bone marrow, skin injury and hearts (healthy and after AMI) was analysed at various time points by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT PCR). Many chemokines were up-regulated after skin biopsy and AMI, but the highest acute levels were found for CXCL12 and CCL7. Due to their high expression in infarcted hearts, the chemokines CXCL12 and CCL7 were tested for their effect on mMSC migration. Despite CR expression at both protein and mRNA levels, migration in response to CXCL12 and CCL7 was low in mMSC cultured on Nunclon plastic. A novel tissue culture plastic technology (UpCellTM) was then used that allowed gentle non-enzymatic dissociation of mMSC, thus preserving surface expression of the CRs. Despite this the in vitro data indicated that CXCL12 fails to induce significant migration ability of mMSC, while CCL7 induces significant, but low-level migration. We speculated this may be because of low levels of surface expression of chemokine receptors. In a strategy to increase cell surface expression of mMSC chemokine receptors and enhance their in vitro and in vivo migration capacity, mMSC were pre-treated with pro-inflammatory cytokines. Increased levels of both mRNA and surface protein expression were found for CRs by pre-treating mMSC with pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF-á, IFN-ã, IL-1á and IL-6. Furthermore, the chemotactic response of mMSC to CXCL12 and CCL7 was significantly higher with these pretreated cells. Finally, the effectiveness of this type of cell manipulation was demonstrated in vivo, where mMSC pre-treated with TNF-á and IFN-ã showed significantly increased migration in skin injury and AMI models. Therefore this thesis has demonstrated, using in vitro and in vivo models, the potential for prior manipulation of MSC as a possible means for increasing the utility of intravenously delivery for MSC-based cellular therapies.
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|Item Type:||QUT Thesis (PhD)|
|Supervisor:||Leavesley, David & Atkinson, Kerry|
|Keywords:||mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), acute myocardial infarct (AMI), chemokine receptors, chemokines, migration, homing, engraftment, CD44|
|Divisions:||Past > Schools > Cell & Molecular Biosciences
Past > QUT Faculties & Divisions > Faculty of Science and Technology
|Institution:||Queensland University of Technology|
|Deposited On:||16 May 2011 05:41|
|Last Modified:||29 Oct 2011 20:06|
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