Sharp vision: a prerequisite for compensation to myopic defocus in the chick?
PURPOSE: Compensatory responses to focusing errors imposed by spectacle lenses in chicks, tree shrews and primates leave little doubt that active emmetropization can occur, and debate is now centered on whether this process is uni-directional or bi-directional in nature. To provide further insight into this emmetropization process, the studies reported in this paper addressed the question of whether access to sharp vision is necessary for compensation to myopic defocus in the chick. METHODS: Two different experimental paradigms were used to address the above question: (A) Myopic defocus was imposed, either with +15 or +40 d lenses alone or with +15 D lenses on eyes made myopic by 7 days of form deprivation; these treatments result in a shift in the plane of focus of the eye (far point) to 6.67, 2.5 cm and approximately 3.5 cm resp., with only objects at or closer than these planes being in focus. The addition to the lenses of stand-off cones, either 2.5 or 5 cm in length, further limited access to (or precluded) sharp vision by controlling how closely the chicks could approach objects. One group that had sharp vision precluded also underwent optic nerve section. (B) A range of positive lenses (+15 to +65 D) were used on their own to impose myopic defocus; for the high power lenses, access to sharp vision was very restricted because of the close proximity of the new far point (1.54 cm for +65 D lens). Refractive errors and axial ocular dimensions were measured in all experiments. RESULTS: In the first study (A), preclusion of sharp vision not only prevented compensation but resulted in increased eye growth and myopia. This myopia, like form-deprivation myopia, was unaltered by optic nerve section surgery. Limiting but not precluding sharp vision resulted in partial compensation. In the second study (B), good compensation was observed with the +15 D lens but compensation progressively declined for higher powers, with the +50 D lens having no apparent effect on eye growth and refraction and the +65 D lens inducing myopia instead of hyperopia. CONCLUSIONS: Together these results argue that some sharp vision is fundamental to compensation to impose myopia. The significance of this new finding in relation to the processes underlying active emmetropization is discussed.
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|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Additional Information:||For more information, please refer to the journal’s website (see link) or contact the author. Author contact details: Dr Christine Wildsoet firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Keywords:||Myopia/, physiopathology, Vision/, physiology, Animals, Chickens, Contact Lenses, Eye/physiopathology, Eyeglasses, Male, Myopia/etiology, Optic Nerve/surgery, Sensory Deprivation, Vitreous Body/physiopathology|
|Subjects:||Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000) > OPTOMETRY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY (111300)|
|Divisions:||Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
|Copyright Owner:||Copyright 1998 Taylor & Francis|
|Copyright Statement:||First published in Current Eye Research 17(3):pp. 322-331.|
|Deposited On:||15 Jun 2006|
|Last Modified:||15 Jan 2009 07:04|
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