Transcutaneous immunization with novel lipid-based adjuvants induces protection against gastric Helicobacter pylori infection
Hickey, Danica K., Aldwell, Frank E., Tan, Zi Yan, Bao, Shisan, & Beagley, Kenneth W. (2009) Transcutaneous immunization with novel lipid-based adjuvants induces protection against gastric Helicobacter pylori infection. Vaccine, 27(50), pp. 6983-6990.
The development of vaccines to combat pathogens that infect across mucosal surfaces has been a major goal of vaccine research. Successful mucosal vaccination requires the co-administration of adjuvants that can overcome the state of immune tolerance normally associated with mucosal application of proteins. In the case of oral immunization, delivery systems are also required to protect vaccine antigens against destruction by gastric pH and digestive enzymes. Furthermore, adjuvants used for mucosal delivery must be free of neurotoxic effects like those induced by the commonly used experimental mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin. Maintenance of the "cold chain" is also essential for the effectiveness of any vaccine and adjuvants/delivery systems that enhance the stability of a vaccine would offer a significant advantage. Needle-free methods of vaccination that induce protective immunity at multiple mucosal surfaces are also desirable for rapid vaccination of large populations. In the present study we show that transcutaneous immunization (TCI) using Lipid C, a novel lipid-based matrix originally developed for oral immunization, containing soluble Helicobacter sonicate significantly reduces the gastric bacterial burden in mice following gastric challenge with live Helicobacter pylori. Protection is associated with the production of splenic gamma interferon and gastric IgA and was achieved without the co-administration of potent and potentially toxic adjuvants, although protection was further enhanced by inclusion of CpG-ODN and cholera toxin in the lipid delivery system.
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