Inhibitory effects of apomorphine and atropine and their combination on myopia in chicks

Schmid, Katrina L. & Wildsoet, Christine F. (2004) Inhibitory effects of apomorphine and atropine and their combination on myopia in chicks. Optometry and Vision Science, 81(2), pp. 137-147.

Abstract

PURPOSE: The inhibitory effect of apomorphine on form-deprivation myopia implies a role for dopaminergic pathways in eye growth; however, the effect of apomorphine on lens-induced changes has not been studied. Our study filled this deficiency. After establishing that apomorphine inhibited lens-induced myopia, we investigated whether apomorphine and atropine acted sequentially via the same control pathway or via different parallel pathways. METHODS: This study, conducted in 8-day-old chicks, was comprised of two parts: (1) a comparative study of apomorphine's effect on lens-induced myopia (-15 D), form-deprivation myopia (diffusers), and lens-induced hyperopia (+15 D) and (2) a study of the interacting effects of apomorphine and atropine on lens-induced myopia and form-deprivation myopia. In the first part, dH2O and six apomorphine doses (8 pmole to 800 nmole in log10 steps) were given as 10-microL intravitreal injections in combination with the above visual treatments. Apomorphine was used alone or given with atropine in the second part, which included four drug treatment groups: (1) control (dH2O); (2) 80 pmole of apomorphine; (3) 18 nmole of atropine; and (4) apomorphine + atropine. Additional dH2O injections were used to equalize the number of injections across groups. After 4.5 days of treatment, refractive errors and axial ocular dimensions were measured. RESULTS: The myopic shifts and axial elongation typical of lens-induced myopia (-15 D lens wear) were inhibited to maxima of 43% (4.5 D) and 52% (0.17 mm) by apomorphine, which, in contrast, enhanced lens-induced hyperopia (refractive error: 114%, 1.55 D; axial length: 134%, 0.16 mm). Inhibitory effects of apomorphine on lens-induced myopia were observed at doses > or = 80 pmole, whereas the doses required to enhance lens-induced hyperopia were 2 log10 units higher. Only a weak inhibitory effect of apomorphine on form-deprivation myopia was observed. Although both apomorphine and atropine inhibited lens-induced myopia, atropine was slightly more effective for the doses compared (refractive error, 53% cf. 32%), and the effect of the combination was not significantly greater than that of atropine alone (refractive error, 59% cf. 53%). CONCLUSIONS: Apomorphine inhibits both types of experimental myopia, which implies the involvement of dopaminergic mechanisms in both phenomena; likewise, cholinergic mechanisms are indicated by the inhibitory effects of atropine on both lens-induced myopia and form-deprivation myopia. We speculate that apomorphine and atropine act at different sites on a common control pathway because the combined effect of apomorphine and atropine was no more than atropine alone.

Impact and interest:

76 citations in Scopus
Search Google Scholar™
68 citations in Web of Science®

Citation counts are sourced monthly from Scopus and Web of Science® citation databases.

These databases contain citations from different subsets of available publications and different time periods and thus the citation count from each is usually different. Some works are not in either database and no count is displayed. Scopus includes citations from articles published in 1996 onwards, and Web of Science® generally from 1980 onwards.

Citations counts from the Google Scholar™ indexing service can be viewed at the linked Google Scholar™ search.

ID Code: 4270
Item Type: Journal Article
Refereed: Yes
Additional Information: Self-archiving of the author-version is not yet supported by this publisher.
For more information, please refer to the journal’s website (see hypertext link) or contact the author.
schmid.k@qut.edu.au
Additional URLs:
Keywords: Animals, Newborn, Apomorphine/, pharmacology, Atropine/, pharmacology, Dopamine Agonists/, pharmacology, Muscarinic Antagonists/, pharmacology, Myopia/, prevention & control, Animals, Atropine/administration & dosage, Chickens, Dose, Response Relationship, Drug, Drug Synergism, Eyeglasses, Form Perception, Male, Muscarinic Antagonists/administration & dosage, Myopia/etiology, Research Support, Non, U, S, Gov't, Sensory Deprivation
ISSN: 1538-9235
Subjects: Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000) > OPTOMETRY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY (111300)
Divisions: Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
Copyright Owner: Copyright 2004 Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins
Deposited On: 14 Jun 2006 00:00
Last Modified: 29 Feb 2012 13:09

Export: EndNote | Dublin Core | BibTeX

Repository Staff Only: item control page