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Identifying constraints on children with movement difficulties : implications for pedagogues and clinicians

Davids, Keith W. (2010) Identifying constraints on children with movement difficulties : implications for pedagogues and clinicians. In Renshaw, Ian, Davids, Keith W., & Savelsbergh, Geert J.P. (Eds.) Motor Learning in Practice: A Constraints-Led Approach. Routledge (Taylor & Francis Group), London, United Kingdom, pp. 173-186.

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Abstract

A constraints- based framework for understanding processes of movement coordination and control is predicated on a range of theoretical ideas including the work of Bernstein (1967), Gibson (1979), Newell (1986) and Kugler, Kelso & Turvey (1982). Contrary to a normative perspective that focuses on the production of idealized movement patterns to be acquired by children during development and learning (see Alain & Brisson, 1986), this approach formulates the emergence of movement co- ordination as a function of the constraints imposed upon each individual. In this framework, cognitive, perceptual and movement difficulties and disorders are considered to be constraints on the perceptual- motor system, and children’s movements are viewed as emergent functional adaptations to these constraints (Davids et al., 2008; Rosengren, Savelsbergh & van der Kamp, 2003). From this perspective, variability of movement behaviour is not viewed as noise or error to be eradicated during development, but rather, as essentially functional in facilitating the child to satisfy the unique constraints which impinge on his/her developing perceptual- motor and cognitive systems in everyday life (Davids et al., 2008). Recently, it has been reported that functional neurobiological variability is predicated on system degeneracy, an inherent feature of neurobiological systems which facilitates the achievement of task performance goals in a variety of different ways (Glazier & Davids, 2009). Degeneracy refers to the capacity of structurally different components of complex movement systems to achieve different performance outcomes in varying contexts (Tononi et al., 1999; Edelman & Gally, 2001). System degeneracy allows individuals with and without movement disorders to achieve their movement goals by harnessing movement variability during performance. Based on this idea, perceptual- motor disorders can be simply viewed as unique structural and functional system constraints which individuals have to satisfy in interactions with their environments. The aim of this chapter is to elucidate how the interaction of structural and functional organismic, and environmental constraints can be harnessed in a nonlinear pedagogy by individuals with movement disorders.

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ID Code: 43657
Item Type: Book Chapter
Additional Information: Description Motor Learning in Practice explores the fundamental processes of motor learning and skill acquisition in sport, and explains how a constraints-led approach can be used to design more effective learning environments for sports practice and performance. Drawing on ecological psychology, the book examines the interaction of personal, environmental and task-specific constraints in the development of motor skills, and then demonstrates how an understanding of those constraints can be applied in a wide range of specific sports and physical activities. The first section of the book contains two chapters that offer an overview of the key theoretical concepts that underpin the constraints-led approach. These chapters also examine the development of fundamental movement skills in children, and survey the most important instructional strategies that can be used to develop motor skills in sport. The second section of the book contains eighteen chapters that apply these principles to specific sports, including basketball, football, boxing, athletics field events and swimming. This is the first book to apply the theory of a constraints-led approach to training and learning techniques in sport. Including contributions from many of the world’s leading scholars in the field of motor learning and development, this book is essential reading for any advanced student, researcher or teacher with an interest in motor skills, sport psychology, sport pedagogy, coaching or physical education. Contents Part 1 1. The Constraints-based Approach to Motor Learning: Implications for a Non-linear Pedagogy in Sport and Physical Education 2. Instructions as Constraints in Motor Skill Acquisition 3. Building the Foundations: Skill Acquisition in Children Part 2 4. Perceptual Training for Basketball Shooting 5. Saving Penalties, Scoring Penalties 6. Stochastic Perturbations in Athletics Field Events Enhance Skill Acquisition 7. Interacting Constraints and Inter-limb Co-ordination in Swimming 8. The Changing Face of Practice for Developing Perception: Action Skill in Cricket 9. The "Nurdle to Leg" and Other Ways of Winning Cricket Matches 10. Manipulating Tasks Constraints to Improve Tactical Knowledge and Collective Decision-making in Rugby Union 11. The Ecological Dynamics of Decision-making in Sailing 12. Using Constraints to Enhance Decision-Making in Team Sports 13. Skill Development in Canoeing and Kayaking: An Individualised Approach 14. A Constraints-led Approach to Coaching Association Football: The Role of Perceptual Information and the Acquisition of Co-ordination 15. Identifying Constraints on Children with Movement Difficulties: Implications for Pedagogues and Clinicians 16. Augmenting Golf Practice Through the Manipulation of Physical and Informational Constraints 17. Skill Acquisition in Dynamic Ball Sports: Monitoring and Controlling Action-effects 18. A Constraints-based Training Intervention in Boxing 19. Researching Co-ordination Skill 20. Skill Acquisition in Tennis: Equipping Learners for Success
Keywords: Perception, Decision-Making, Action, Ecological Dynamics
ISBN: 978–0- 203–88810–0
Subjects: Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000) > HUMAN MOVEMENT AND SPORTS SCIENCE (110600) > Motor Control (110603)
Divisions: Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
Current > Schools > School of Exercise & Nutrition Sciences
Copyright Owner: © 2010 selection and editorial material, Ian Renshaw, Keith Davids and Geert J.P. Savelsbergh; individual chapters, the contributors.
Copyright Statement: All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers.
Deposited On: 26 Jul 2011 23:50
Last Modified: 03 Mar 2012 10:11

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