Tubal damage, infertility and tubal ectopic pregnancy : chlamydia trachomatis and other microbial aetiologies
Infertility is a worldwide health problem with one in six couples suffering from this condition and with a major economic burden on the global healthcare industry. Estimates of the current global infertility rate suggest that 15% of couples are infertile (Zegers-Hochschild et al 2009) defined as: (1) failure to conceive after 12 months of unprotected sexual intercourse (i.e. infertility); (2) repeated implantation failure following ART cycles; or (3) recurrent miscarriage without difficulty conceiving (natural conceptions). Tubal factor infertility is among the leading causes of female factor infertility accounting for 7-9.8% of all female factor infertilities. Tubal disease directly causes from 36% to 85% of all cases of female factor infertility in developed and developing nations respectively and is associated with polymicrobial aetiologies. One of the leading global causes of tubal factor infertility is thought to be symptomatic (and asymptomatic in up to 70% cases) infection of the female reproductive tract with the sexually transmitted pathogen, Chlamydia trachomatis. Infection-related damage to the Fallopian tubes caused by Chlamydia accounts for more than 70% of cases of infertility in women from developing nations such as sub-Saharan Africa (Sharma et al 2009). Bacterial vaginosis, a condition associated with increased transmission of sexually transmitted infections including those caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Mycoplasma genitalium is present in two thirds of women with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). This review will focus on (1) the polymicrobial aetiologies of tubal factor infertility and (2) studies involved in screening for, and treatment and control of, Chlamydial infection to prevent PID and the associated sequelae of Fallopian tube inflammation that may lead to infertility and ectopic pregnancy.
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|Item Type:||Book Chapter|
|Keywords:||Infertility, Chlamydia , Ectopic Pregnancy, Tubal Factor Infertility, Pelvic Inflammatory Disease|
|Subjects:||Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES (060000) > MICROBIOLOGY (060500) > Infectious Agents (060502)|
|Divisions:||Past > Schools > Cell & Molecular Biosciences|
Past > QUT Faculties & Divisions > Faculty of Science and Technology
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
|Copyright Owner:||Copyright 2011 Open Access Publisher|
|Deposited On:||15 Aug 2011 08:18|
|Last Modified:||03 Jan 2012 15:25|
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