Estrogen receptor-Beta activated apoptosis in benign hyperplasia and cancer of the prostate is androgen independent and TNF-alpha mediated

McPherson, Stephen, Hussain, Shirin, Balanathan, Preetika, Hedwards, Shelley, Niranjan, Birunthi, Grant, Michael, Chandrasiri, Upeksha, Toivanen, Roxanne, Wang, Yuzhuo, Taylor, Renea, & Risbridger, Gail (2010) Estrogen receptor-Beta activated apoptosis in benign hyperplasia and cancer of the prostate is androgen independent and TNF-alpha mediated. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107(7), pp. 3123-3128.

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Prostate cancer (PCa) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are androgen-dependent diseases commonly treated by inhibiting androgen action. However, androgen ablation or castration fail to target androgen-independent cells implicated in disease etiology and recurrence. Mechanistically different to castration, this study shows beneficial proapoptotic actions of estrogen receptor–β (ERβ) in BPH and PCa. ERβ agonist induces apoptosis in prostatic stromal, luminal and castrate-resistant basal epithelial cells of estrogen-deficient aromatase knock-out mice. This occurs via extrinsic (caspase-8) pathways, without reducing serum hormones, and perturbs the regenerative capacity of the epithelium. TNFα knock-out mice fail to respond to ERβ agonist, demonstrating the requirement for TNFα signaling. In human tissues, ERβ agonist induces apoptosis in stroma and epithelium of xenografted BPH specimens, including in the CD133+ enriched putative stem/progenitor cells isolated from BPH-1 cells in vitro. In PCa, ERβ causes apoptosis in Gleason Grade 7 xenografted tissues and androgen-independent cells lines (PC3 and DU145) via caspase-8. These data provide evidence of the beneficial effects of ERβ agonist on epithelium and stroma of BPH, as well as androgen-independent tumor cells implicated in recurrent disease. Our data are indicative of the therapeutic potential of ERβ agonist for treatment of PCa and/or BPH with or without androgen withdrawal.

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104 citations in Scopus
100 citations in Web of Science®
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ID Code: 45118
Item Type: Journal Article
Refereed: Yes
Keywords: castration, steroid receptors, selective estrogen receptor modulators
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0905524107
ISSN: 0027-8424
Deposited On: 24 Aug 2011 22:17
Last Modified: 29 Feb 2012 14:24

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