Renal and genitourinary emergencies
Bonner, Ann (2011) Renal and genitourinary emergencies. In Curtis, Kate & Ramsden, Clair (Eds.) Emergency and Trauma Nursing [2nd ed.]. Elsevier, Sydney, pp. 605-629.
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Genitourinary (GU) problems are a common complaint in the community and to the emergency department (ED). Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the second most common bacterial disease. UTIs rank as the sixteenth most frequently reported problem to general practitioners in Australia1 and between 10% and 20% of women will experience at least one UTI in their lifetime. Over 1,000,000 Australians are currently suffering with nephrolithiasis (renal calculi) and it is hy-pothesised that Australia’s hot, dry climate causes more stone formation than many other coun-tries in the world. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of any trauma. Hypovol-aemia results in severe hypotension and this precipitates the development of acute tubular necrosis and subsequent AKI. The incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is rising across the world. CKD is classified into five stages with those in stage 5 being classified as being in end stage kidney disease (ESKD). It is estimated that there are over 1.5 million people in Australia with CKD and there were over 16,000 Australians and over 2900 individuals in New Zealand with ESKD.2 Indigenous populations from both countries (Aboriginals, Torres Strait Islanders, Maoris, and Pacific Islanders) are over-represented in the number of people with all stages of CKD in both countries. Patients with compromised renal function often require the assistance of paramedics and will arrive at the ED with life-threatening fluid and electrolyte imbalances. Spe-cific GU emergencies discussed in this chapter are acute renal failure, rhabdomyolysis, chronic kidney disease, UTIs, acute urinary retention, urinary calculi, testicular torsion, epididymitis, and priapism. Refer to Chapter 31 for discussion of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in women and to Chapter X for discussion of genitourinary trauma.
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|Item Type:||Book Chapter|
|Keywords:||emergency, trauma, kidney, urinary sytem|
|Subjects:||Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000) > NURSING (111000)|
|Divisions:||Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health|
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
Current > Schools > School of Nursing
|Copyright Owner:||Copyright 2011 Elsevier|
|Deposited On:||29 Aug 2011 08:59|
|Last Modified:||30 Aug 2011 18:48|
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