Propagation of low power low divergence Gaussian fields in unbiased self-defocusing photorefractive media and their interactions

Jones, Michael William (2011) Propagation of low power low divergence Gaussian fields in unbiased self-defocusing photorefractive media and their interactions. PhD by Publication, Queensland University of Technology.


Many optical networks are limited in speed and processing capability due to the necessity for the optical signal to be converted to an electrical signal and back again. In addition, electronically manipulated interconnects in an otherwise optical network lead to overly complicated systems. Optical spatial solitons are optical beams that propagate without spatial divergence. They are capable of phase dependent interactions, and have therefore been extensively researched as suitable all optical interconnects for over 20 years. However, they require additional external components, initially high voltage power sources were required, several years later, high power background illumination had replaced the high voltage. However, these additional components have always remained as the greatest hurdle in realising the applications of the interactions of spatial optical solitons as all optical interconnects. Recently however, self-focusing was observed in an otherwise self-defocusing photorefractive crystal. This observation raises the possibility of the formation of soliton-like fields in unbiased self-defocusing media, without the need for an applied electrical field or background illumination. This thesis will present an examination of the possibility of the formation of soliton-like low divergence fields in unbiased self-defocusing photorefractive media. The optimal incident beam and photorefractive media parameters for the formation of these fields will be presented, together with an analytical and numerical study of the effect of these parameters. In addition, preliminary examination of the interactions of two of these fields will be presented. In order to complete an analytical examination of the field propagating through the photorefractive medium, the spatial profile of the beam after propagation through the medium was determined. For a low power solution, it was found that an incident Gaussian field maintains its Gaussian profile as it propagates. This allowed the beam at all times to be described by an individual complex beam parameter, while also allowing simple analytical solutions to the appropriate wave equation. An analytical model was developed to describe the effect of the photorefractive medium on the Gaussian beam. Using this model, expressions for the required intensity dependent change in both the real and imaginary components of the refractive index were found. Numerical investigation showed that under certain conditions, a low powered Gaussian field could propagate in self-defocusing photorefractive media with divergence of approximately 0.1 % per metre. An investigation into the parameters of a Ce:BaTiO3 crystal showed that the intensity dependent absorption is wavelength dependent, and can in fact transition to intensity dependent transparency. Thus, with careful wavelength selection, the required intensity dependent change in both the real and imaginary components of the refractive index for the formation of a low divergence Gaussian field are physically realisable. A theoretical model incorporating the dependence of the change in real and imaginary components of the refractive index on propagation distance was developed. Analytical and numerical results from this model are congruent with the results from the previous model, showing low divergence fields with divergence less than 0.003 % over the propagation length of the photorefractive medium. In addition, this approach also confirmed the previously mentioned self-focusing effect of the self-defocusing media, and provided an analogy to a negative index GRIN lens with an intensity dependent focal length. Experimental results supported the findings of the numerical analysis. Two low divergence fields were found to possess the ability to interact in a Ce:BaTiO3 crystal in a soliton-like fashion. The strength of these interactions was found to be dependent on the degree of divergence of the individual beams. This research found that low-divergence fields are possible in unbiased self-defocusing photorefractive media, and that soliton-like interactions between two of these fields are possible. However, in order for these types of fields to be used in future all optical interconnects, the manipulation of these interactions, together with the ability for these fields to guide a second beam at a different wavelength, must be investigated.

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ID Code: 45618
Item Type: QUT Thesis (PhD by Publication)
Supervisor: Jaatinen, Esa & Michael, Gregory
Keywords: photorefractive media, nonlinear optics, solitons, soliton interactions, self-focusing, self-defocusing, unbiased photorefractive media, Gaussian beam optics, GRIN lens, intensity dependent absorption, intensity dependent transparency, Ce:BaTiO3
Divisions: Past > QUT Faculties & Divisions > Faculty of Science and Technology
Institution: Queensland University of Technology
Deposited On: 30 Aug 2011 03:04
Last Modified: 30 Aug 2011 03:04

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