University students’ depression : a cross-cultural investigation

Khawaja, Nigar G., Santos, Maria L.R.R. , Habibi, Mojtaba, & Smith, Rachel (2011) University students’ depression : a cross-cultural investigation. Higher Education Research and Development, 32(3), pp. 392-406.

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Australian, Iranian and Portuguese university students (N = 967) completed University Students Depression Inventory (USDI; Khawaja & Bryden, 2006) in English, Persian, and Portuguese languages respectively. A series of MANOVA were used to examine differences in depression symptoms as an effect of the country and demographic variables. Interactions were also examined. The results indicated that country, gender, and year level had some impact on the depressive symptoms of the university students. Australian students were more depressed than the Iranian and Portuguese students, while Iranian students were more depressed than the Portuguese students. Subscales of USDI: Lethargy, Motivation, and Cognitive/Emotional were also used to compare the depressive symptoms of students. The Australian female students reported a significantly higher level of lethargy than their male counterparts. Similarly, the first year male students from Iran were significantly more lethargic than the first year Iranian female students. Iranian and Portuguese male students, compared to the female students of these countries, experienced a lower level of motivation. The Australian and Iranian students, compared to the Portuguese students, reported a significantly higher level of cognitive and affective symptoms. The scores on the Cognitive/Emotional subscale increased with the year level. Differences among students’ depression are described and implications discussed.

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5 citations in Scopus
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3 citations in Web of Science®

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ID Code: 47153
Item Type: Journal Article
Refereed: Yes
Additional URLs:
Keywords: University students, Depression, Lethargy, Motivation, , Cognitions and affect, HERN
DOI: 10.1080/07294360.2012.697129
ISSN: 0729-4360
Subjects: Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > EDUCATION (130000) > EDUCATION SYSTEMS (130100) > Higher Education (130103)
Divisions: Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
Current > Schools > School of Psychology & Counselling
Copyright Owner: Copyright 2011 Taylor & Francis
Copyright Statement: This is a preprint of an article submitted for consideration in the [Higher Education Research and Development] © copyright Taylor & Francis; [Higher Education Research and Development] is available online at:
Deposited On: 22 Nov 2011 22:40
Last Modified: 08 May 2014 10:15

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