Comparing the medium-term effects of exercise or dietary restriction on appetite regulation and compensatory responses

McGivern, Cu-Hullan Tsuyoshi (2011) Comparing the medium-term effects of exercise or dietary restriction on appetite regulation and compensatory responses. Masters by Research thesis, Queensland University of Technology.


Previous studies have shown that exercise (Ex) interventions create a stronger coupling between energy intake (EI) and energy expenditure (EE) leading to increased homeostasis of the energy-balance (EB) regulatory system compared to a diet intervention where an un-coupling between EI and EE occurs. The benefits of weight loss from Ex and diet interventions greatly depend on compensatory responses. The present study investigated an 8-week medium-term Ex and diet intervention program (Ex intervention comprised of 500kcal EE five days per week over four weeks at 65-75% maximal heart rate, whereas the diet intervention comprised of a 500kcal decrease in EI five days per week over four weeks) and its effects on compensatory responses and appetite regulation among healthy individuals using a between- and within-subjects design. Effects of an acute dietary manipulation on appetite and compensatory behaviours and whether a diet and/or Ex intervention pre-disposes individuals to disturbances in EB homeostasis were tested. Energy intake at an ad libitum lunch test meal after a breakfast high- and low-energy pre-load (the high energy pre-load contained 556kcal and the low energy pre-load contained 239kcal) were measured at the Baseline (Weeks -4 to 0) and Intervention (Weeks 0 to 4) phases in 13 healthy volunteers (three males and ten females; mean age 35 years [sd + 9] and mean BMI 25 kg/m2 [sd + 3.8]) [participants in each group included Ex=7, diet=5 (one female in the diet group dropped out midway), thus, 12 participants completed the study]. At Weeks -4, 0 and 4, visual analogue scales (VAS) were used to assess hunger and satiety and liking and wanting (L&W) for nutrient and taste preferences using a computer-based system (E-Prime v1.1.4). Ad libitum test meal EI was consistently lower after the HE pre-load compared to the LE pre-load. However, this was not consistent during the diet intervention however. A pre-load x group interaction on ad libitum test meal EI revealed that during the intervention phase the Ex group showed an improved sensitivity to detect the energy content between the two pre-loads and improved compensation for the ad libitum test meal whereas the diet group’s ability to differentiate between the two pre-loads decreased and showed poorer compensation (F[1,10]=2.88, p-value not significant). This study supports previous findings of the effect Ex and diet interventions have on appetite and compensatory responses; Ex increases and diet decreases energy balance sensitivity.

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ID Code: 47164
Item Type: QUT Thesis (Masters by Research)
Supervisor: King, Neil & Byrne, Nuala
Keywords: appetite, body weight, compensatory responses, diet, energy balance, energy intake, energy expenditure, exercise, obesity
Divisions: Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Current > Schools > School of Exercise & Nutrition Sciences
Institution: Queensland University of Technology
Deposited On: 23 Nov 2011 02:05
Last Modified: 23 Nov 2011 02:05

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