Comparing the medium-term effects of exercise or dietary restriction on appetite regulation and compensatory responses

McGivern, Cu-Hullan Tsuyoshi (2011) Comparing the medium-term effects of exercise or dietary restriction on appetite regulation and compensatory responses. Masters by Research thesis, Queensland University of Technology.

Abstract

Previous studies have shown that exercise (Ex) interventions create a stronger coupling between energy intake (EI) and energy expenditure (EE) leading to increased homeostasis of the energy-balance (EB) regulatory system compared to a diet intervention where an un-coupling between EI and EE occurs. The benefits of weight loss from Ex and diet interventions greatly depend on compensatory responses. The present study investigated an 8-week medium-term Ex and diet intervention program (Ex intervention comprised of 500kcal EE five days per week over four weeks at 65-75% maximal heart rate, whereas the diet intervention comprised of a 500kcal decrease in EI five days per week over four weeks) and its effects on compensatory responses and appetite regulation among healthy individuals using a between- and within-subjects design. Effects of an acute dietary manipulation on appetite and compensatory behaviours and whether a diet and/or Ex intervention pre-disposes individuals to disturbances in EB homeostasis were tested. Energy intake at an ad libitum lunch test meal after a breakfast high- and low-energy pre-load (the high energy pre-load contained 556kcal and the low energy pre-load contained 239kcal) were measured at the Baseline (Weeks -4 to 0) and Intervention (Weeks 0 to 4) phases in 13 healthy volunteers (three males and ten females; mean age 35 years [sd + 9] and mean BMI 25 kg/m2 [sd + 3.8]) [participants in each group included Ex=7, diet=5 (one female in the diet group dropped out midway), thus, 12 participants completed the study]. At Weeks -4, 0 and 4, visual analogue scales (VAS) were used to assess hunger and satiety and liking and wanting (L&W) for nutrient and taste preferences using a computer-based system (E-Prime v1.1.4). Ad libitum test meal EI was consistently lower after the HE pre-load compared to the LE pre-load. However, this was not consistent during the diet intervention however. A pre-load x group interaction on ad libitum test meal EI revealed that during the intervention phase the Ex group showed an improved sensitivity to detect the energy content between the two pre-loads and improved compensation for the ad libitum test meal whereas the diet group’s ability to differentiate between the two pre-loads decreased and showed poorer compensation (F[1,10]=2.88, p-value not significant). This study supports previous findings of the effect Ex and diet interventions have on appetite and compensatory responses; Ex increases and diet decreases energy balance sensitivity.

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ID Code: 47164
Item Type: QUT Thesis (Masters by Research)
Supervisor: King, Neil & Byrne, Nuala
Keywords: appetite, body weight, compensatory responses, diet, energy balance, energy intake, energy expenditure, exercise, obesity
Divisions: Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Current > Schools > School of Exercise & Nutrition Sciences
Institution: Queensland University of Technology
Deposited On: 23 Nov 2011 02:05
Last Modified: 23 Nov 2011 02:05

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