Use of the iPhone for Cobb angle measurement in scoliosis
Purpose: The Cobb technique is the universally accepted method for measuring the severity of spinal deformities. Traditionally, Cobb angles have been measured using protractor and pencil on hardcopy radiographic films. The new generation of mobile phones make accurate angle measurement possible using an integrated accelerometer, providing a potentially useful clinical tool for assessing Cobb angles. The purpose of this study was to compare Cobb angle measurements performed using an Apple iPhone and traditional protractor in a series of twenty Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis patients.
Methods: Seven observers measured major Cobb angles on twenty pre-operative postero-anterior radiographs of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis patients with both a standard protractor and using an Apple iPhone. Five of the observers repeated the measurements at least a week after the original measurements.
Results: The mean absolute difference between pairs of iPhone/protractor measurements was 2.1°, with a small (1°) bias toward lower Cobb angles with the iPhone. 95% confidence intervals for intra-observer variability were ±3.3° for the protractor and ±3.9° for the iPhone. 95% confidence intervals for inter-observer variability were ±8.3° for the iPhone and ±7.1° for the protractor. Both of these confidence intervals were within the range of previously published Cobb measurement studies.
Conclusions: We conclude that the iPhone is an equivalent Cobb measurement tool to the manual protractor, and measurement times are about 15% less. The widespread availability of inclinometer-equipped mobile phones and the ability to store measurements in later versions of the angle measurement software may make these new technologies attractive for clinical measurement applications.
Impact and interest:
Citation counts are sourced monthly from and citation databases.
These databases contain citations from different subsets of available publications and different time periods and thus the citation count from each is usually different. Some works are not in either database and no count is displayed. Scopus includes citations from articles published in 1996 onwards, and Web of Science® generally from 1980 onwards.
Citations counts from theindexing service can be viewed at the linked Google Scholar™ search.
Full-text downloads displays the total number of times this work’s files (e.g., a PDF) have been downloaded from QUT ePrints as well as the number of downloads in the previous 365 days. The count includes downloads for all files if a work has more than one.
|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Additional Information:||Springer Online First publication|
|Keywords:||scoliosis, Cobb angle, iPhone, smartphone, measurement variability, Apple iPhone, spinal deformity|
|Subjects:||Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > ENGINEERING (090000) > BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING (090300) > Biomechanical Engineering (090302)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000) > CLINICAL SCIENCES (110300) > Orthopaedics (110314)
|Divisions:||Current > Schools > School of Chemistry, Physics & Mechanical Engineering
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Science & Engineering Faculty
|Copyright Owner:||Copyright 2011 Springer|
|Copyright Statement:||The original publication is available at SpringerLink
|Deposited On:||26 Feb 2012 22:58|
|Last Modified:||24 Aug 2014 02:37|
Repository Staff Only: item control page