A comprehensive literature review of the pelvis and the lower extremity digital human models under quasi-static conditions

Al-Dirini, R.M.A., Paul, G., & Thewlis, D. (2011) A comprehensive literature review of the pelvis and the lower extremity digital human models under quasi-static conditions. In 1st International Symposium on Digital Human Modelling, 14-16 June 2011, Universite Claude Bernard, Lyon.


Finite Element Modeling (FEM) has become a vital tool in the automotive design and development processes. FEM of the human body is a technique capable of estimating parameters that are difficult to measure in experimental studies with the human body segments being modeled as complex and dynamic entities. Several studies have been dedicated to attain close-to-real FEMs of the human body (Pankoke and Siefert 2007; Amann, Huschenbeth et al. 2009; ESI 2010). The aim of this paper is to identify and appraise the state of-the art models of the human body which incorporate detailed pelvis and/or lower extremity models. Six databases and search engines were used to obtain literature, and the search was limited to studies published in English since 2000. The initial search results identified 636 pelvis-related papers, 834 buttocks-related papers, 505 thigh-related papers, 927 femur-related papers, 2039 knee-related papers, 655 shank-related papers, 292 tibia-related papers, 110 fibula-related papers, 644 ankle related papers, and 5660 foot-related papers. A refined search returned 100 pelvis-related papers, 45 buttocks related papers, 65 thigh-related papers, 162 femur-related papers, 195 kneerelated papers, 37 shank-related papers, 80 tibia-related papers, 30 fibula-related papers and 102 ankle-related papers and 246 foot-related papers. The refined literature list was further restricted by appraisal against a modified LOW appraisal criteria. Studies with unclear methodologies, with a focus on populations with pathology or with sport related dynamic motion modeling were excluded. The final literature list included fifteen models and each was assessed against the percentile the model represents, the gender the model was based on, the human body segment/segments included in the model, the sample size used to develop the model, the source of geometric/anthropometric values used to develop the model, the posture the model represents and the finite element solver used for the model. The results of this literature review provide indication of bias in the available models towards 50th percentile male modeling with a notable concentration on the pelvis, femur and buttocks segments.

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ID Code: 49086
Item Type: Conference Paper
Refereed: Yes
Additional URLs:
Keywords: Biomechanical Modelling, Finite Element Modelling, Literature Review
ISBN: 9782953951509
Subjects: Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000)
Divisions: Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
Current > Schools > School of Public Health & Social Work
Copyright Owner: Copyright 2011 [please consult the author]
Deposited On: 13 Mar 2012 00:44
Last Modified: 09 Jun 2017 15:54

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