Emmetropisation responses when visual information is presented at only one or two near target planes in chick

Schmid, Katrina L., Brinkworth, Darren R., & Wallace, Kate M. (2003) Emmetropisation responses when visual information is presented at only one or two near target planes in chick. Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 86(5), pp. 308-316.


When visual information is confined to one object plane and zero or hyperopic defocus is present, emmetropisation is directed towards this plane, when myopic defocus is present, emmetropisation processes fail. We investigated the effect of introducing information at a second nearer plane on emmetropisation responses under these conditions. METHODS: The visual environment was controlled using lenses (+30 D, +40 D and +50 D) and cones with a Maltese cross target (MX) at one or two distances. Four different target configurations were used: 1. a single target was located at 3.3 cm, 2. a vertical hemi-field target was added at 2.5 cm, 3. a transparent target was added at 2.5 cm or 4. a single target was located at 2.5 cm. An additional cone length of 4.0 cm and nearer target distance of 3.3 cm was used with the +50 D lens. The imaging devices were applied monocularly to eight-day-old chicks and worn for four days. At the end of the treatment, refractive errors and eye growth were measured. Potential regional differences in growth were also assessed. RESULTS: The configuration of the target and the interaction between target configuration and lens power had significant refractive and axial growth effects. With a single target plane, myopic and hyperopic defocus resulted in myopia. When defocus was experienced at two planes, refractive errors shifted towards the plane with the lower defocus and emmetropisation responses, although still not normal, were more consistent. CONCLUSIONS: When visual information is provided at two distances, the target with the lesser incident defocus has the greater influence on the resultant refractive error. Emmetropisation responses are more accurate when information is presented at many distances.

Impact and interest:

3 citations in Scopus
Search Google Scholar™

Citation counts are sourced monthly from Scopus and Web of Science® citation databases.

These databases contain citations from different subsets of available publications and different time periods and thus the citation count from each is usually different. Some works are not in either database and no count is displayed. Scopus includes citations from articles published in 1996 onwards, and Web of Science® generally from 1980 onwards.

Citations counts from the Google Scholar™ indexing service can be viewed at the linked Google Scholar™ search.

Full-text downloads:

337 since deposited on 28 Oct 2004
10 in the past twelve months

Full-text downloads displays the total number of times this work’s files (e.g., a PDF) have been downloaded from QUT ePrints as well as the number of downloads in the previous 365 days. The count includes downloads for all files if a work has more than one.

ID Code: 495
Item Type: Journal Article
Refereed: Yes
Additional URLs:
ISSN: 0816-4622
Subjects: Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000) > OPTOMETRY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY (111300)
Divisions: Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
Copyright Owner: Copyright 2003 Optometrists Association Australia
Copyright Statement: Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher: Issues published between 1998-2005 are available free online - use hypertext link above.
Deposited On: 28 Oct 2004 00:00
Last Modified: 29 Feb 2012 13:01

Export: EndNote | Dublin Core | BibTeX

Repository Staff Only: item control page