Design and implementation of wideband baluns for Archimedean spiral antennas

Vinayagamoorthy, Kalyany (2011) Design and implementation of wideband baluns for Archimedean spiral antennas. Masters by Research thesis, Queensland University of Technology.

Abstract

The demand for high-speed data services for portable device has become a driving force for development of advanced broadband access technologies. Despite recent advances in broadband wireless technologies, there remain a number of critical issues to be resolved. One of the major concerns is the implementation of compact antennas that can operate in a wide frequency band. Spiral antenna has been used extensively for broadband applications due to its planar structure, wide bandwidth characteristics and circular polarisation. However, the practical implementation of spiral antennas is challenged by its high input characteristic impedance, relatively low gain and the need for balanced feeding structures. Further development of wideband balanced feeding structures for spiral antennas with matching impedance capabilities remain a need. This thesis proposes three wideband feeding systems for spiral antennas which are compatible with wideband array antenna geometries. First, a novel tapered geometry is proposed for a symmetric coplanar waveguide (CPW) to coplanar strip line (CPS) wideband balun. This balun can achieve the unbalanced to balanced transformation while matching the high input impedance of the antenna to a reference impedance of 50 . The discontinuity between CPW and CPS is accommodated by using a radial stub and bond wires. The bandwidth of the balun is improved by appropriately tapering the CPW line instead of using a stepped impedance transformer. Next, the tapered design is applied to an asymmetric CPW to propose a novel asymmetric CPW to CPS wideband balun. The use of asymmetric CPW does away with the discontinuities between CPW and CPS without having to use a radial stub or bond wires. Finally, a tapered microstrip line to parallel striplines balun is proposed. The balun consists of two sections. One section is the parallel striplines which are connected to the antenna, with the impedance of balanced line equal to the antenna input impedance. The other section consists of a microstrip line where the width of the ground plane is gradually reduced to eventually resemble a parallel stripline. The taper accomplishes the mode and impedance transformation. This balun has significantly improved bandwidth characteristics. Characteristics of proposed feeding structures are measured in a back-to-back configuration and compared to simulated results. The simulated and measured results show the tapered microstrip to parallel striplines balun to have more than three octaves of bandwidth. The tapered microstrip line to parallel striplines balun is integrated with a single Archimedean spiral antenna and with an array of spiral antennas. The performance of the integrated structures is simulated with the aid of electromagnetic simulation software, and results are compared to measurements. The back-to-back microstrip to parallel strip balun has a return loss of better than 10 dB over a wide bandwidth from 1.75 to 15 GHz. The performance of the microstrip to parallel strip balun was validated with the spiral antennas. The results show the balun to be an effective mean of feeding network with a low profile and wide bandwidth (2.5 to 15 GHz) for balanced spiral antennas.

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ID Code: 49773
Item Type: QUT Thesis (Masters by Research)
Supervisor: Jayalath, Dhammika & Coetzee, Jacob
Keywords: frequency independent antennas, Archimedean spiral antenna,waves, coplanarwaveguide, coplanar striplines, wideband balun, microstrip lines, parallel striplines
Divisions: Past > QUT Faculties & Divisions > Faculty of Science and Technology
Institution: Queensland University of Technology
Deposited On: 18 Apr 2012 04:26
Last Modified: 18 Apr 2012 04:26

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