Modified beam theories for nanowires considering surface/intrinsic effects and axial extension effect
Several studies of the surface effect on bending properties of a nanowire (NW) have been conducted. However, these analyses are mainly based on theoretical predictions, and there is seldom integration study in combination between theoretical predictions and simulation results. Thus, based on the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and different modified beam theories, a comprehensive theoretical and numerical study for bending properties of nanowires considering surface/intrinsic stress effects and axial extension effect is conducted in this work. The discussion begins from the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and Timoshenko beam theory augmented with surface effect. It is found that when the NW possesses a relatively small cross-sectional size, these two theories cannot accurately interpret the true surface effect. The incorporation of axial extension effect into Euler-Bernoulli beam theory provides a nonlinear solution that agrees with the nonlinear-elastic experimental and MD results. However, it is still found inaccurate when the NW cross-sectional size is relatively small. Such inaccuracy is also observed for the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory augmented with both contributions from surface effect and axial extension effect. A comprehensive model for completely considering influences from surface stress, intrinsic stress, and axial extension is then proposed, which leads to good agreement with MD simulation results. It is thus concluded that, for NWs with a relatively small cross-sectional size, a simple consideration of surface stress effect is inappropriate, and a comprehensive consideration of the intrinsic stress effect is required.
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