Ultraviolet-visible, near infrared and mid infrared reflectance spectroscopy of turquoise
Frost, Ray L., Reddy, B. Jagannadha, Weier, Matt L., & Martens, Wayde N. (2006) Ultraviolet-visible, near infrared and mid infrared reflectance spectroscopy of turquoise. Journal of Near Infrared Spectroscopy, 14(4), pp. 241-250.
NIR spectroscopy of two turquoise minerals of different origins with formula Cu(Al6-x,Fex)(PO4)4(OH)8.4H2O have been studied and a comparison of their NIR, UV-Visible and mid-IR spectra made. UV-Vis and NIR reflectance spectroscopy is the most effective approach for detection and determination of transition metal ions that cause colour to minerals and semi-precious gems such as turquoise. The UV-Vis spectra of two turquoise minerals (blue and green) reported in this research are distinctly different. The spectra confirm the difference in the origin of the colours of the minerals. The paramagnetism of the blue mineral arises mainly from divalent copper. Turquoise from Senegal has a replacement of some Al(III) by Fe(III) in the structure. NIR spectroscopy identifies the bands attributed to the hydroxyl units. The NIR spectroscopic technique is most sensitive in detecting Fe2+ even though it is present in very low concentrations in turquoise from Senegal. IR spectra of the two mineral samples are very similar in the 1200 to 900 cm-1 region but strong differences are observed in the 900 to 100 cm-1 region. The effect of substitution of Fe for Al in turquoise from Senegal shifts the bands to lower wavenumbers. Factor group analysis (FGA) implies four OH stretching vibrations for both the water and hydroxyl units. Two bands ascribed to water are observed in theses samples at ~3280 and 3070 cm-1 and three hydroxyl stretching vibrations are observed. The combination of these bands and their fundamental overtones give rise to many of the features of the NIR spectra.
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|Item Type:||Journal Article|
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This is one of a series of manuscriptson the "colour of minerals"
|Keywords:||UV, Vis, NIR and mid, IR spectroscopy, turquoise, phosphate, Cu(II) distorted octahedral symmetry, overtone and combination bands|
|Divisions:||Past > QUT Faculties & Divisions > Faculty of Science and Technology|
|Copyright Owner:||Copyright 2006 NIR Publications|
|Deposited On:||08 Nov 2006 00:00|
|Last Modified:||29 Feb 2012 13:30|
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