Efficient safety message dissemination for cooperative collision warning via context modelling

Sebastian, Alvin (2011) Efficient safety message dissemination for cooperative collision warning via context modelling. PhD thesis, Queensland University of Technology.


A Cooperative Collision Warning System (CCWS) is an active safety techno- logy for road vehicles that can potentially reduce traffic accidents. It provides a driver with situational awareness and early warnings of any possible colli- sions through an on-board unit. CCWS is still under active research, and one of the important technical problems is safety message dissemination. Safety messages are disseminated in a high-speed mobile environment using wireless communication technology such as Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC). The wireless communication in CCWS has a limited bandwidth and can become unreliable when used inefficiently, particularly given the dynamic nature of road traffic conditions. Unreliable communication may significantly reduce the performance of CCWS in preventing collisions. There are two types of safety messages: Routine Safety Messages (RSMs) and Event Safety Messages (ESMs). An RSM contains the up-to-date state of a vehicle, and it must be disseminated repeatedly to its neighbouring vehicles. An ESM is a warning message that must be sent to all the endangered vehi- cles. Existing RSM and ESM dissemination schemes are inefficient, unscalable, and unable to give priority to vehicles in the most danger. Thus, this study investigates more efficient and scalable RSM and ESM dissemination schemes that can make use of the context information generated from a particular traffic scenario. Therefore, this study tackles three technical research prob- lems, vehicular traffic scenario modelling and context information generation, context-aware RSM dissemination, and context-aware ESM dissemination. The most relevant context information in CCWS is the information about possible collisions among vehicles given a current vehicular traffic situation. To generate the context information, this study investigates techniques to model interactions among multiple vehicles based on their up-to-date motion state obtained via RSM. To date, there is no existing model that can represent interactions among multiple vehicles in a speciffic region and at a particular time. The major outcome from the first problem is a new interaction graph model that can be used to easily identify the endangered vehicles and their danger severity. By identifying the endangered vehicles, RSM and ESM dis- semination can be optimised while improving safety at the same time. The new model enables the development of context-aware RSM and ESM dissemination schemes. To disseminate RSM efficiently, this study investigates a context-aware dis- semination scheme that can optimise the RSM dissemination rate to improve safety in various vehicle densities. The major outcome from the second problem is a context-aware RSM dissemination protocol. The context-aware protocol can adaptively adjust the dissemination rate based on an estimated channel load and danger severity of vehicle interactions given by the interaction graph model. Unlike existing RSM dissemination schemes, the proposed adaptive scheme can reduce channel congestion and improve safety by prioritising ve- hicles that are most likely to crash with other vehicles. The proposed RSM protocol has been implemented and evaluated by simulation. The simulation results have shown that the proposed RSM protocol outperforms existing pro- tocols in terms of efficiency, scalability and safety. To disseminate ESM efficiently, this study investigates a context-aware ESM dissemination scheme that can reduce unnecessary transmissions and deliver ESMs to endangered vehicles as fast as possible. The major outcome from the third problem is a context-aware ESM dissemination protocol that uses a multicast routing strategy. Existing ESM protocols use broadcast rout- ing, which is not efficient because ESMs may be sent to a large number of ve- hicles in the area. Using multicast routing improves efficiency because ESMs are sent only to the endangered vehicles. The endangered vehicles can be identified using the interaction graph model. The proposed ESM protocol has been implemented and evaluated by simulation. The simulation results have shown that the proposed ESM protocol can prevent potential accidents from occurring better than existing ESM protocols. The context model and the RSM and ESM dissemination protocols can be implemented in any CCWS development to improve the communication and safety performance of CCWS. In effect, the outcomes contribute to the realisation of CCWS that will ultimately improve road safety and save lives.

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ID Code: 50793
Item Type: QUT Thesis (PhD)
Supervisor: Tang, Maolin, Feng, Yanming, & Looi, Mark
Keywords: automobile safety, cooperative collisions warning, collisions warning/avoidance, wireless ad-hoc networks, vehicular ad-hoc network, VANET, wireless communication protocol, vehicular safety communication, dedicated short- range communication, DSRC, IEEE 802.11p, WAVE, context-aware, multihop, multicast, optimisation
Divisions: Past > Schools > Computer Science
Past > QUT Faculties & Divisions > Faculty of Science and Technology
Institution: Queensland University of Technology
Deposited On: 06 Jun 2012 05:31
Last Modified: 06 Jun 2012 05:32

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