Analysis and correction of voltage profile in low voltage distribution networks containing photovoltaic cells and electric vehicles

Shahnia, Farhad (2011) Analysis and correction of voltage profile in low voltage distribution networks containing photovoltaic cells and electric vehicles. PhD thesis, Queensland University of Technology.

Abstract

Voltage drop and rise at network peak and off–peak periods along with voltage unbalance are the major power quality problems in low voltage distribution networks. Usually, the utilities try to use adjusting the transformer tap changers as a solution for the voltage drop. They also try to distribute the loads equally as a solution for network voltage unbalance problem. On the other hand, the ever increasing energy demand, along with the necessity of cost reduction and higher reliability requirements, are driving the modern power systems towards Distributed Generation (DG) units. This can be in the form of small rooftop photovoltaic cells (PV), Plug–in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) or Micro Grids (MGs). Rooftop PVs, typically with power levels ranging from 1–5 kW installed by the householders are gaining popularity due to their financial benefits for the householders. Also PEVs will be soon emerged in residential distribution networks which behave as a huge residential load when they are being charged while in their later generation, they are also expected to support the network as small DG units which transfer the energy stored in their battery into grid. Furthermore, the MG which is a cluster of loads and several DG units such as diesel generators, PVs, fuel cells and batteries are recently introduced to distribution networks. The voltage unbalance in the network can be increased due to the uncertainties in the random connection point of the PVs and PEVs to the network, their nominal capacity and time of operation. Therefore, it is of high interest to investigate the voltage unbalance in these networks as the result of MGs, PVs and PEVs integration to low voltage networks. In addition, the network might experience non–standard voltage drop due to high penetration of PEVs, being charged at night periods, or non–standard voltage rise due to high penetration of PVs and PEVs generating electricity back into the grid in the network off–peak periods. In this thesis, a voltage unbalance sensitivity analysis and stochastic evaluation is carried out for PVs installed by the householders versus their installation point, their nominal capacity and penetration level as different uncertainties. A similar analysis is carried out for PEVs penetration in the network working in two different modes: Grid to vehicle and Vehicle to grid. Furthermore, the conventional methods are discussed for improving the voltage unbalance within these networks. This is later continued by proposing new and efficient improvement methods for voltage profile improvement at network peak and off–peak periods and voltage unbalance reduction. In addition, voltage unbalance reduction is investigated for MGs and new improvement methods are proposed and applied for the MG test bed, planned to be established at Queensland University of Technology (QUT). MATLAB and PSCAD/EMTDC simulation softwares are used for verification of the analyses and the proposals.

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ID Code: 50834
Item Type: QUT Thesis (PhD)
Supervisor: Ghosh, Arindam, Ledwich, Gerard, & Zare, Firuz
Keywords: low voltage distribution networks, voltage profile, voltage unbalance, photovoltaic cells, single–phase rooftop PVs, plug–in electric vehicles, micro grid, DSTATCOM, DVR, sensitivity analysis, stochastic evaluation
Divisions: Past > QUT Faculties & Divisions > Faculty of Built Environment and Engineering
Past > Schools > School of Engineering Systems
Institution: Queensland University of Technology
Deposited On: 08 Jun 2012 04:43
Last Modified: 08 Jun 2012 04:43

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