Validation of scales measuring self-efficacy and outcome expectancy in evidence-based practice

Chang, Anne M. & Crowe, Linda (2011) Validation of scales measuring self-efficacy and outcome expectancy in evidence-based practice. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing, 8(2), pp. 106-115.

View at publisher


Background: Evidence-based practice (EBP) is embraced internationally as an ideal approach to improve patient outcomes and provide cost-effective care. However, despite the support for and apparent benefits of evidence-based practice, it has been shown to be complex and difficult to incorporate into the clinical setting. Research exploring implementation of evidence-based practice has highlighted many internal and external barriers including clinicians’ lack of knowledge and confidence to integrate EBP into their day-to-day work. Nurses in particular often feel ill-equipped with little confidence to find, appraise and implement evidence.

Aims: The following study aimed to undertake preliminary testing of the psychometric properties of tools that measure nurses’ self-efficacy and outcome expectancy in regard to evidence-based practice.

Methods: A survey design was utilised in which nurses who had either completed an EBP unit or were randomly selected from a major tertiary referral hospital in Brisbane, Australia were sent two newly developed tools: 1) Self-efficacy in Evidence-Based Practice (SE-EBP) scale and 2) Outcome Expectancy for Evidence-Based Practice (OE-EBP) scale.

Results: Principal Axis Factoring found three factors with eigenvalues above one for the SE-EBP explaining 73% of the variance and one factor for the OE-EBP scale explaining 82% of the variance. Cronbach’s alpha for SE-EBP, three SE-EBP factors and OE-EBP were all >.91 suggesting some item redundancy. The SE-EBP was able to distinguish between those with no prior exposure to EBP and those who completed an introductory EBP unit.

Conclusions: While further investigation of the validity of these tools is needed, preliminary testing indicates that the SE-EBP and OE-EBP scales are valid and reliable instruments for measuring health professionals’ confidence in the process and the outcomes of basing their practice on evidence.

Impact and interest:

19 citations in Scopus
16 citations in Web of Science®
Search Google Scholar™

Citation counts are sourced monthly from Scopus and Web of Science® citation databases.

These databases contain citations from different subsets of available publications and different time periods and thus the citation count from each is usually different. Some works are not in either database and no count is displayed. Scopus includes citations from articles published in 1996 onwards, and Web of Science® generally from 1980 onwards.

Citations counts from the Google Scholar™ indexing service can be viewed at the linked Google Scholar™ search.

Full-text downloads:

205 since deposited on 19 Jul 2012
117 in the past twelve months

Full-text downloads displays the total number of times this work’s files (e.g., a PDF) have been downloaded from QUT ePrints as well as the number of downloads in the previous 365 days. The count includes downloads for all files if a work has more than one.

ID Code: 52295
Item Type: Journal Article
Refereed: Yes
Keywords: Evidence-Based Practice, Self-Efficacy, Outcome Expectancy, Instrument Validation
DOI: 10.1111/j.1741-6787.2011.00215.x
ISSN: 1545-102X
Subjects: Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000) > NURSING (111000)
Divisions: Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
Copyright Owner: Copyright 2011 Sigma Theta Tau International
Copyright Statement: This is the accepted version of the following article: Chang, A. M. and Crowe, L. (2011), Validation of Scales Measuring Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectancy in Evidence-Based Practice. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing, 8: 106–115. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-6787.2011.00215.x, which has been published in final form at
Deposited On: 19 Jul 2012 06:29
Last Modified: 29 Jan 2015 00:47

Export: EndNote | Dublin Core | BibTeX

Repository Staff Only: item control page