Preparation, characterisation and in vivo osteogenesis of mesoporous bioactive glasses

Yuen, Jones (2012) Preparation, characterisation and in vivo osteogenesis of mesoporous bioactive glasses. Masters by Research thesis, Queensland University of Technology.

Abstract

Bone defects, especially large bone defects, remain a major challenge in orthopaedic surgery. Autologous bone transplantation is considered the most effective treatment, but insufficient donor tissue, coupled with concerns about donor site morbidity, has hindered this approach in large-scale applications. Alternative approaches include implanting biomaterials such as bioactive glass (BG), which has been widely used for bone defect healing, due to having generally good biocompatibility, and can be gradually biodegraded during the process of new bone formation. Mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) is a newly developed bioactive glass which has been proven to have enhanced in-vitro bioactivity; however the in-vivo osteogenesis has not been studied. A critical problem in using the bone tissue engineering approach to restore large bone defects is that the nutrient supply and cell viability at the centre of the scaffold is severely hampered since the diffusion distance of nutrients and oxygen for cell survival is limited to 150-200µm. Cobalt ions has been shown to mimic hypoxia, which plays a pivotal role in coupling angiogenesis with osteogenesis in-vivo by activating hypoxia inducing factor-1α (HIF-1α) transcription factor, subsequently initiating the expression of genes associated with tissue regeneration. Therefore, one aim of this study is to investigate the in-vivo osteogenesis of MBG by comparison with BG and β-TCP, which are widely used clinically. The other aim is to explore hypoxia-mimicking biomaterials by incorporating Cobalt into MBG and β-TCP. MBG and β-TCP incorporated with 5% cobalt (5Co-MBG and 5CCP) have also been studied in-vivo to determine whether the hypoxic effect has a beneficial effect on the bone formation. The composition and microstructure of synthesised materials (BG, MBG, 5Co-MBG, 5CCP) were characterised, along with the mesopore properties of the MBG materials. Dissolution and cytotoxicity of the Co-containing materials were also investigated. Femoral samples with defects harvested at 4 and 8 weeks were scanned using micro-CT followed by processing for histology (H&E staining) to determine bone formation.

Histology of MBG showed a slower rate of bone formation at 4 weeks than BG, however at 8 weeks it could be clearly seen that MBG had more bone formation. The in-vivo results show that the osteogenesis of MBG reciprocates the enhanced performance shown in-vitro compared to BG. Dissolution study showed that Co ions can be efficiently released from MBG and β-TCP in a controllable way. Low amounts of Co incorporated into the MBG and β-TCP showed no significant cytotoxicity and the Co-MBG powders maintained a mesopore structure although not as highly ordered as pure MBG. Preliminary study has shown that Co incorporated samples showed little to no bone formation, instead incurring high lymphocyte activity. Further studies need to be done on Co incorporated materials to determine the cause for high lymphocyte activity in-vivo, which appear to hinder bone formation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the osteogenic activity of MBG and provided some valuable information of tissue reaction to Co-incorporated MBG and TCP materials.

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ID Code: 53101
Item Type: QUT Thesis (Masters by Research)
Supervisor: Xiao, Yin & Wu , Chengtie
Keywords: in vivo osteogenesis, mesoporous bioactive glasses
Divisions: Past > QUT Faculties & Divisions > Faculty of Built Environment and Engineering
Past > Schools > School of Engineering Systems
Institution: Queensland University of Technology
Deposited On: 13 Aug 2012 06:20
Last Modified: 10 Sep 2015 02:10

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